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Unit Three

History as a Story of Significant Events

SCO 3.1 The First World War 1914-1918

First Five Hundred on board the S.S. Florizel, St. John's, October 3, 1914.
Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL E-29-7), St. John's, Newfoundland.
The HMS Calypso, n.d.
The training ship for the Royal Naval Reserve, 1902–1922. It was renamed the HMS Briton in 1916.
Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL B-17-22), St. John's, Newfoundland.
Col. Dr. Cluny Macpherson in Egypt, September 1915.
Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL Macpherson Collection A-24-155), St. John's, Newfoundland.

SCO 3.2 The Growth of Land-Based Economy (1914-1945)

Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Mill, ca. 1930.
View of a portion of the Bowaters Pulp and Paper Mill in Corner Brook, NL.
Photographer unknown. Reproduced by the permission of the Archives and Manuscripts Division (Coll - 137, 16.03.001), Queen Elizabeth II Library, Memorial University, St. John's, NL.
Miners working underground, Buchans, ca. 1928.
The Buchans mines operated for nearly half a century.
Courtesy of Teresa Makinson.
Bell Island, ca. 1904.
Although farming and fishing families settled on Bell Island during the 18th century, its population remained relatively small until iron ore mines opened there in 1895.
Photographer unknown. Reproduced by permission of the Archives and Manuscripts Division (Coll. 137 10.13.010), Queen Elizabeth II Library, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL.
Markland Homestead, ca. 1935.
One of the first homesteads in Markland, NL. The town was a planned farming community established by Newfoundland's Commission of Government in the early 1930s.
Courtesy of Mr. John Gosse.

SCO 3.3 Challenges and Disasters

Youngest Karluk survivor, 1914
Three-year-old Mugpie (also Mukpie) was the youngest member of the Karluk, which sank in the Arctic on 11 January 1914. She and 20 others survived the disaster, while 11 men died. They were rescued on 7 September 1914.
Photograph by Curtis and Miller. Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada (PA-105139), Ottawa, Ontario.
Torngat Mountains, ca. 1927.
View of the Torngat Mountains in northern Labrador seen from the open Atlantic showing the entrance to Nachvay Bay.
Photographer unknown. From Great Britain. Privy Council. Judicial Committee, In the matter of the boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the colony of Newfoundland in the Labrador Peninsula, Vol 5 (London: Harrison & Sons, 1927) 2539.

SCO 3.4 Political Events of the 1930s: Impact

Commission of Government, 1948.
Governor Sir Gordon Macdonald presides over a meeting of the Commission of Government.
From Joseph R. Smallwood, "The Story of Confederation," The Book of Newfoundland, volume III (St. John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland Book Publishers, ©1967) 7.

SCO 3.5 The Second World War 1939-1945

The Black Watch arrives off Botwood, 1940.
Infantrymen with Canada’s Black Watch arrive off Botwood aboard HMCS Ottawa on June 22, 1940. Their mission was to defend the town and its airbase in the event of attack.
Photographer unknown. Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada (PA-104040), Ottawa, Ontario.
Camp Alexander, 1941.
Tents in Camp Alexander served as temporary quarters for American solders waiting for permanent barracks to be built at Fort Pepperrell. The camp, nicknamed ‘Tent City,’ was located between Military Road and Carpasion Road in St. John’s.
Photographer unknown. Reproduced by the permission of the Maritime History Archive (PF-306.183), Memorial University, St. John’s, NL.
Moving Building Materials, ca. 1942.
Workers building a repeater station northwest of Port aux Basques move materials up a steep mountainside.
Photographer unknown. Reproduced by the permission of the Maritime History Archive (PF-306.1017), Memorial University, St. John’s, NL.
Introduction Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage New Site