Ungava Bay Basin

This ecoregion extends northward from Schefferville and encompasses most of the Labrador Hills in northeastern Québec. It covers only a very small area in Labrador.


It is characterized as having cool summers and very cold winters. The mean annual temperature is around -4.5°C, with a mean summer temperature of 8.5°C and a mean winter temperature of -16°C. The mean annual precipitation ranges from 300 mm to 400 mm around Ungava Bay to 750 mm in the south.

Trees and Vegetation

Open stands of black spruce, dwarf birch, northern Labrador tea, and lichens comprise about half of the ecoregion, while shrub makes up the other half. Vegetative cover is limited on dry sites. Black spruce, Labrador tea, sedge, and sphagnum moss dominate on sites that are poorly drained.


The Labrador Hills are composed of ancient sedimentary and volcanic rocks, whose surfaces form a series of sinuous ridges and valleys. Summit elevations range from about 730 m above sea level (asl) to about 360 m asl. Glaciation has produced rolling plains with numerous lakes. Drumlins and ribbed moraines are distributed throughout. Depressions are partly filled with peat accumulations. Rock outcrops are common in the ecoregion. Permafrost is sporadic and discontinuous, occurring mainly in wetlands.

Wildlife and Human Activity

The ecoregion is home to caribou, small mammals, waterfowl, and other birds. Hunting and trapping, along with outdoor recreation, are common activities.

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