Confederation and Canadian National (1949-1988)
The Newfoundland Railway was not merely a convenient route to the middle
of nowhere. Rather it made two vital connections. The initial public face
of the railway was always that it connected the population centres of eastern
Newfoundland to a hinterland -- to "open up" the west, very much in the model
of other North American railways. The second link was clearly one between
Newfoundland and Canada.
From the first there was an association between the Newfoundland Railway and
Confederation with Canada. On the one hand, the railway was first proposed after
confederation had been soundly rejected, in 1869, and was seen by some as a
necessary exertion of Newfoundland independence: "the work of a country." On
the other hand, the "people's road" was also an attempt to "North Americanize"
Newfoundland, to develop a land-based economy. The railway's strongest advocate,
William V. Whiteway, had been an avowed confederate in '69. The Canadian
connections of the Reid family provided further ammunition for those who cast
the railway as a stalking-horse for confederation.
While the association may not have been as sinister as was sometimes played
out in the partisan press of the day, it is true that the Reid family several
times took the lead in exploratory talks aimed at confederation. Confederate
trial balloons had been floated by Robert G. Reid in response to the bank crash
and fiscal crisis of 1894. William Reid's machinations at the time of the
railway contract of '98 and through the early 1900s were expressed as political
support of an avowed local confederate, Alfred B. Morine. William again attempted to
encourage confederation during World War I. He hoped that the line might be nationalized
and absorbed by Canadian National Railways, relieving the Reids of their
commitment to a money-losing operation. A similar hope was entertained by
elements in the Commission of Government after 1934.
|Alfred B. Morine (1857-1944), n.d.
Morine, Newfoundland's Finance Minister in the late 1890s, was an avowed
Artist unknown. From D.W. Prowse, A History of Newfoundland, from the
English, Colonial and Foreign Records (London: Macmillan, 1895) 550.
As confederation was seriously debated in the National Convention and
referendum campaigns of 1946-48, the families of 5,000 employees of the
Newfoundland Railway were seen as a natural constituency favouring
confederation. The railwaymen were felt to be more "North American" in
their outlook, attitudes and expectations than the inhabitants of remote
fishing villages. Many of the railwaymen were members of international unions,
with direct knowledge of higher Canadian wage scales. The confederates also
argued forcefully that confederation would make the railway prosper by virtue
of increased traffic from Canada.
Under terms 31-33 of the Terms of Union (1948) the Newfoundland Railway, its
services, personnel and property were assumed by the federal government.
The immediate changes included wage increases and adjustment to the standards
of Canadian National Railways (C.N.). The line had once again been run
down in the name of the war effort, requiring major improvements to cope with the
increased freight which did indeed accompany a post-confederation boom in
construction, and an increased demand for North American consumer goods.
||Canadian National Express, 1949.
Cold storage depot at the St. John's Riverhead Station,
newly taken over by Canadian National Express.
From the A.R. Penney Collection. Courtesy of
Harry Cuff Publications.
In the first decade after confederation C.N. made considerable expenditures in
Newfoundland: revamping the Port aux Basques terminal, ordering new ferries (including the
first rail- and passenger-ferry, the William Carson in 1955), upgrading yard
facilities at Corner Brook and St. John's, introducing treated ties and 85-lb
rail, raising the track through the Gaff Topsail by four feet, and replacing
steam locomotives with diesel-electric (1953-59). Yet annual operating losses
continued, and the old Newfoundland Railway hands complained that C.N. junior
management was addicted to cheese-paring.
Protected to a degree by its inclusion in the Terms of Union, the railway was
supported as a public work and even as a legacy of Newfoundland's former
independence. The completion of the Trans-Canada Highway across the island
in 1965 began a downward spiral whereby the Railway lost traffic, lost money
and lost support at the management level, losing consumer appeal and traffic.
In 1968 C.N. introduced a trans-insular "Roadcruiser" bus service, and the
following summer express passenger service was discontinued, the last run being
2 July 1969. Increasingly it was felt that the writing was on the wall for the
freight service as well, as all but low-value bulk cargoes were soon being
carried by container trucks (although the railway did compete successfully for
container traffic for a time). A Royal Commission into Newfoundland's
Transportation System, chaired by Dr. Arthur Sullivan, recommended in 1978
that the railway be phased out. There was public outcry, and the Newfoundland
Railway was removed from C.N.'s Atlantic Division headquartered in Moncton, and
placed in a separate division: TerraTransport. But five years later it was clear
that the railway was nearing the end.
|"Roadcruiser" bus, 1978.
C.N. "Roadcruiser" bus bearing the TerraTransport logo.
From the A.R. Penney Collection. Courtesy of
Harry Cuff Publications.
The Bonavista and Carbonear branches were closed in 1983, and Argentia
followed the following year, along with 32 stations on the main line. Even the
greatest supporters of the railway had to admit it was only a matter of time:
the trains ran only rarely, rail transport was scarcely considered in consumer
and corporate choices, and the grass literally grew between the tracks.
Support for the railway by the provincial government was largely a matter of
posturing, to get the best deal possible before letting the federal government
off the hook.
On 20 June 1988 it was announced that the federal and provincial governments
had struck a deal for the final closure of the railway. The federal government
agreed to provide $800 million in long-term highways upgrading. The last train
ran on 20 September 1988, and by the end of 1990 all the track had been taken
up. The Newfoundland Railway trackbed has since seen much use of both commercial
and recreational purposes, and has been the focus of efforts to preserve the
old line for the people of the province as a "T'railway."
||The Grand Concourse, St. John's, ca. 2000.
The Newfoundland T'Railway section of the Grand Concourse begins at
the heritage train station on Water Street, and continues west
through St. John's, Mount Pearl and Paradise.
Photo courtesy of the Newfoundland T'Railway Council, ©2000.
In 1997 it was
announced that the T'railway would form a linear provincial park, and it has
since also been co-opted into the Trans-Canada Trail.
© 2001, Robert Cuff