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Unit Five - Appendix 14

Chronology

1805 First post office opens.

1806 Benevolent Irish Society founded in St. John’s.

1807 Newfoundland”s first newspaper, The Royal Gazette and Newfoundland Advertiser,
          established by John Ryan.

1815 End of the Napoleonic wars.

1816, 17       Fires in St. John”s.

1816 Gower Street Methodist Church opens.

1816-17        Winter of the Rals (or Rowdies).

1817 Governor stays year-round for the first time.

1819 Demasduit (“Mary March”) captured and brought to St. John”s.

1822 William Cormack walks across Newfoundland.

1823 Shanawdithit captured at Badger Bay with her mother and sister.

1824 Newfoundland becomes a Crown Colony.
          “Coast of Labrador” placed once again under Newfoundland jurisdiction.

1825 Sir Thomas Cochrane, first civil governor.

1825 First highway opened, from St. John”s to Portugal Cove.

1829 Death of Shanawdithit.

1832 Representative government granted, first elections.

1833 House of Assembly opens for the first time.

1834 Newfoundland Savings Bank established.

1836 Cape Spear lighthouse lit for the first time.

1836 First Education Act.

1837 Land granted for Roman Catholic cathedral in St. John”s.

1845 Introduction of gas to St. John”s.

1846 Great gale of 1846 causes widespread damage.

1846 Great fire in St. John”s leaves 12,000 homeless.

1847 Construction begins on present Anglican cathedral, St. John”s.

1850 Colonial Building opens.

1852 Harbour Grace streets illuminated by gas lights for the first time.

1855 Responsible government instituted.
          Liberal party forms government, led by P.F. Little.

1857 Census puts population at 122,638.

1860 Terra Nova mine opened at Baie Verte.

1861 Serious riot in St. John”s following general election.

1862 Steamers used in the seal fishery for the first time.

1864 Establishment of Newfoundland Geological Survey. Tilt Cove copper mine opened.

1866 Transatlantic cable links Ireland and Heart”s Content.

1869 Pro-confederates badly defeated in general election.

1871 Newfoundland Constabulary formed, a year after the withdrawal of British troops.

1872 Better steam communication established with Nova Scotia and Britain.

1875 Betts Cove copper mine opened.

1876 Arrival of the Irish Christian Brothers.

1878 First telephone system in St. John”s.

1879 First successful daily newspaper: The Evening Telegram.

1881 Construction of the Newfoundland railway begins.

1883 Orange-Catholic affray at Harbour Grace.

1884 St. John”s dry dock opens. Census lists population at 197,589.

1885 Flavin Lane station produces the first electricity in St. John”s.

1887 Secret ballot introduced.

1888 Municipal government in St. John”s.

1886 Electric lights on St. John”s streets.

1890 Railway construction contract with R.G. Reid.

1891 Newfoundland Teachers Association formed.

1892 July 8: Great Fire destroys much of downtown St. John”s.

1892 Wilfred Grenfell”s first voyage to Newfoundland and Labrador.

1893 Railway operating contract with R.G. Reid.

1894 “Black Monday” (December 10): Crash of the Union and Commercial banks.

1895 Canadian banks set up in St. John”s.
          Confederation negotiations fail.
          Iron ore mining begins on Bell Island.

1897 Cornerstone of Cabot Tower laid.

1898 First train runs from St. John”s to Port aux Basques.
          First pulp mill at Black River, Placentia Bay.

1900 Inaugural run of St. John”s Street Railway.

1901 December 12/13: Marconi receives the first transatlantic wireless signals at
          Signal Hill.
          Formation of the Reid Newfoundland Company.
          Population approximately 220,000.

1902 Governor Cavendish Boyle composes The Ode To Newfoundland.

1904 The Entente Cordiale ends French Treaty Shore dispute.

1905 Agreement with Anglo-Newfoundland Development Co. to build newsprint mill at
          Grand Falls.

1908 Tie election.
          Foundation of the Fishermen”s Protective Union.

1909 Branch line railway programme begins.
          Grand Falls mill opens.
          Old age pensions introduced.

1914 Sealing disasters: the Southern Cross and the crew of the Newfoundland.
          Outbreak of First World War, formation of the Newfoundland Regiment.

1916 July 1, Newfoundland Regiment decimated at Beaumont Hamel.

1917 Prohibition introduced. Daylight Savings Time instituted.

1918 Conscription introduced. War ends.

1919 Alcock and Brown make the first nonstop transatlantic flight from St. John”s.
          Spanish flu epidemic.

1923 Government takes over the railway and coastal steam service.

1925 Corner Brook pulp and paper mill begins production.
          Legislature passes the Women”s Suffrage Bill.
          Memorial University College opens.

1927 Privy Council defines the Labrador boundary in Newfoundland”s favour.

1928 Buchans mine opens.

1929 Onset of the Great Depression. Burin Peninsula tsunami.

1932 Riot outside the Colonial Building.

1932 Amelia Earhart departs from Harbour Grace on her flight across the Atlantic.

1933 Louise Saunders of Greenspond becomes Newfoundland”s first woman lawyer.
          Royal Commission chaired by Lord Amulree examines condition of Newfoundland.

1934 Responsible government suspended. Commission of Government installed.
          Capt. Abraham Kean catches his one millionth seal.

1938 Gander Airport opens.

1939 Outbreak of Second World War.

1940 Leased bases deal between Britain and the United States.

1941 Atlantic Charter signed in Placentia Bay.
          Construction of Goose Bay air base, Labrador.

1942 German submarines sink ore carriers off Bell Island and the SS Caribou.

1945 End of war.

1946 Election of the National Convention.

1947 Cars now drive on the right.

1948 Confederation wins the second referendum.
          Negotiation of terms of union with Canada

1949 Newfoundland with Labrador becomes a Canadian province (31 March)
          J.R. Smallwood premier of a Liberal provincial government.
          Memorial University College becomes Memorial University of Newfoundland.

1953 Start of the government-sponsored resettlement programme.

1955 CJON television opens.

1957 Unemployment programme for fishery workers established.

1959 IWA strike in central Newfoundland. Relocation of Inuit from Hebron.

1960 Viking site at L”Anse aux Meadows discovered.

1961 Holyrood oil refinery opens.

1962 Mining begins at Labrador City.

1964 Asbestos mining at Baie Verte.

1965 Mining begins at Wabush.
          Trans-Canada highway across Newfoundland completed.

1966 Bell Island iron mines close.
          Stephenville air base closed.
          Agreement reached on development of Churchill Falls.

1967 Marystown shipyard opens.
          Avalon Mall opens in St. John”s.
          Baie d”Espoir hydro development on stream.

1968 Phosphorus plant goes into production at Long Harbour, Placentia Bay.

1969 Medicare instituted. Passenger rail service closed.

1970 Formation of Fishermen”s Union (NFFAW).

1971 First teachers” strike.

1972 Frank Moores heads the first PC provincial government.
          First power from Churchill Falls is delivered to Hydro-Quebec.

1973 Come by Chance refinery opens.
          Stephenville mill opens.

1975 Cable television comes to Newfoundland.
          Sir Wilfred Grenfell College opens.

1976 Come by Chance refinery closes: bankruptcy.

1977 Linerboard mill in Stephenville closes.
          Fluorspar mines at St. Lawrence close.
          First McDonald”s franchise in Newfoundland opens in St. John”s
          Two hundred mile limit established.
          Brigitte Bardot protests the seal hunt.

1978 L”Anse aux Meadows is declared a UNESCO world heritage site

1978 Abitibi Price buys Stephenville linerboard mill.

1979 Offshore oil discoveries confirmed.
          First women appointed to a provincial cabinet: Hazel Newhook and Lynn Verge.

1980 New provincial flag is adopted.
          Newfoundland and Labrador Arts Council established.

1982 Loss of the Ocean Ranger.
          EEC bans import of seal pup pelts.
          Publication of The Dictionary of Newfoundland English.

1983 Construction of the Trans-Labrador Highway begins.
          Mi”kmaq of Conne River recognized as status Indians.

1984 Supreme Court of Canada rules that the Hibernia oilfield belongs to Canada,
          not Newfoundland.
          The Pope visits Newfoundland.
          Kruger Inc. takes over the Corner Brook mill.
          Formation of Fishery Products International.

1985 Signature of the Atlantic Accord.
          Arrow Airlines crash at Gander.
          Buchans mine closes.

1986 Official end to the killing of seal pups or “whitecoats.”
          Spanish trawlers arrested on the Grand Banks.

1987 First plantings at the Sprung Greenhouse, Mount Pearl (closed 1989).

1988 Labrador becomes a separate federal riding.
          Mount Pearl becomes a city.
          Federal-Provincial agreement to close the Railway in return for
          $800 million for roads

1989 Closure of phosphorus plant at Long Harbour.

1990 Agreement on Hibernia oil field development.

1992 Cod moratorium imposed

1994 Argentia base closed.

1995 Arrest of the Spanish trawler Estai.
          Discovery of Voisey’s Bay mineral deposit.

1996 Agreement on Terra Nova oil field development.

1997 John Cabot 500th anniversary celebrations.
          Referendum approves end of denominational school system.
          Hibernia platform towed out.

2001 Name of province changed.
          Agreement reached on Inuit land claim.

2002 Agreement on development of Voisey’s Bay.
          Davis Inlet Innu begin move to Natuashish.

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