Memorial University of Newfoundland
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Unit Five - Appendix 13

Primary Documents in Newfoundland and Labrador History

Below is a list of examples of Primary Source Documents that can be found at the Libraries and Archives of Canada and the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s, Newfoundland. Many of these can be found at: or:

1. Inuit woman and children, Labrador. (PANL B10-148).

2. William Carson (1770-1843), n.d. Carson, a 19th century Newfoundland reformer and politician, campaigned for representative government. Artist unknown. (PANL A23-91), St. John's, Newfoundland.

3. American schooner, n.d. A schooner from Massachusetts off the coast of Newfoundland. (PANL A17-96).

4. Drying Fish, ca. 1890. (PANL B4-39). Possibly the Crosbie Premises, St. John's. For much of its history, St. John's has been an important centre for the collection and export of fish from around Newfoundland and Labrador.

5. Letter to the editor from C. F. Bennett, The Morning Chronicle (St. John's), December 7, 1868. © Public Domain

6. “No Confederation,” The Morning Chronicle (St. John's), September 28, 1869, p. 1. © Public Domain

7. “Confederation in Newfoundland,” The Newfoundlander (St. John's), October 5, 1869, p. 2. © Public Domain

8. Sons of England Benefit Society (S.O.E.) Outing, July 1898. (PANL VA19-112). Although harsh economic realities were present in the daily lives of many rural fishing families, the fishing industry made others very prosperous. Society outings were important elements of 19th century society for the more affluent individuals.

9. House of Assembly in Session c. 1914. (PANL C1-207). Edward Morris, the prime minister and leader of the Peoples Party, is the third person to the left of the Speaker. Unlike most parliamentary legislatures, in Newfoundland the party in power sat to the left of the speaker – because that was where the fireplace was located.

10. Women's Patriotic Association workers at Government House, ca. 1914.(PANL B-5-173).

11. D Company, First Newfoundland Regiment, lining rails of S.S. Stephano, ready to leave for overseas, March 20, 1915. (PANL VA-37-23).

12. Officers of the First Newfoundland Regiment with British Officers, n.d. Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL F46-14), St. John's, Newfoundland.

13. Colonel Dr. Cluny Macpherson in Egypt, September 1915.(PANL Macpherson Collection A-24-155).

14. VAD printed propaganda, n.d. (PANL P5-21.)

15. Unveiling the National War Memorial, St. John's, July 1, 1924. (PANL NA-15-27).

16. Opening of Beaumont Hamel Park, France, ca. 1925. (PANL NA-31-06).

17. National War Memorial, St. John's, ca. 1925. (PANL E-23-23).

18. Unveiling the National War Memorial, St. John's, July 1, 1924.(PANL E-47-40).

19. Election List, 1855-1934.

20. St. John's, ca. 1939. The struggling country of Newfoundland was hit extremely hard by the Great Depression, which began in 1929. While many Newfoundlanders found themselves unemployed, others worked for low wages. The political and financial instability, coupled with social unrest, made for the Dirty '30s.(Gustav Anderson Collection). From Carmelita McGrath and Kathryn Welbourn, Desperate Measures: The Great Depression in Newfoundland and Labrador, 27.

21. Inauguration of the Commission of Government, February 16, 1934. Newfoundland governor Sir David Murray Anderson speaking at the inauguration of the Commission of Government. (PANL B4-137).

22. “Dictionary of political terms,” The Independent, April 5, 1948, p. 7. © Public Domain

23. “Battle song of Newfoundland,” The Confederate, May 12, 1948, p. 3. © Public Domain

24. “Voters of Newfoundland,.” The Independent, May 28, 1948, p. 1. © Public Domain

25. “Too late!,” The Independent, June 26, 1948, p. 3. © Public Domain

26. “An Act to approve the Terms of Union of Newfoundland with Canada,” Statutes of Canada 1949 (v. I), c. 1, p. 1-21. © Crown Reproduced with permission of the Department of Justice

27. “An Act to confirm and give effect to Terms of Union of Newfoundland agreed between Canada and Newfoundland,” Statutes of Canada 1949, c. 22, Prefix, p. v-vi. © Crown Reproduced with permission of the Department of Justice

28. British North America Act, 1949, Enactment No. 21. Department of Justice Canada website:

29. “New province tomorrow: hope, sorrow blend on Confederation eve,” Toronto Telegram, March 31, 1949, p. 1 and 3. © Dorothy Howarth Reproduced with the permission of Dorothy Howarth

30. “For some, the debate hasn't ended,” St. John's Weekly Telegram, March 21, 1999, p. 5.© The Telegram Reproduced with the permission of The Telegram

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