Becoming a Province
After a short period of hesitation, the Canadian government decided to accept the
result of the referendum, and enter into formal negotiations with an authorized
delegation from Newfoundland. Once agreed, the terms of union would be approved by
the Canadian government and the Commission of Government. The British parliament
would then amend the British North America [BNA] Act.
The Newfoundland delegation was led by Albert Walsh, one of the Newfoundland members
of the Commission.
||Sir Albert J. Walsh.|
Courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL B1-155), St. John's,
with more information (42 kb)
It included the confederate leaders, Joseph Smallwood and Gordon
Bradley, and the last chairman of the Convention, John McEvoy. The business sector was
represented by Philip Gruchy, manager of the paper mill at Grand Falls, Chesley
Crosbie and Gordon Winter. After numerous preliminary meetings, the delegation left
for Ottawa on 6 October, 1948.
The basis of negotiation were the draft terms of union worked out in 1947. However,
the delegation wanted a better financial deal, and this proved to be an area of serious
difficulty. Finally, the Canadian government agreed to significantly increase the 12-year
transitional grant. There were also difficulties over fisheries administration. The final
terms were signed on 11 December by all except Crosbie, who thought the financial
arrangements were unsatisfactory.
|Signing of the Terms of Union between Canada and Newfoundland, 11 December 1948.
Courtesy of Unknown/National Archives of Canada/PA-128072. From Peter Neary and
Patrick O'Flaherty, Part of the Main: An Illustrated History of Newfoundland and Labrador
(St. John's, Newfoundland: Breakwater Books, ©1983) 164.
with more information (49 kb)
In St. John's, diehard anti-confederates tried to stop the process. A petition sponsored
by the responsible Government League calling for a return to responsible government gathered
50,000 signatures. Major Peter Cashin and others took it to London, hoping to influence
British parliamentarians, but it had little or no effect. A second tactic was a court action
against the Commission of Government, claiming that the legislation authorizing both the
National Convention and the referendums were unconstitutional, and that confederation could
only be brought about by an elected legislature. The action was thrown out.
By 17 February 1949 the Canadian parliament had given its consent. The Commission of Government
followed, and on 22 February debate began in the British parliament. The legislation passed its
final stages in late March.
Meanwhile, there had been considerable discussion about how the new province should be governed
between the date of union - set for 31 March - and the first provincial election. After many
consultations, the Canadian government (now led by Louis St. Laurent) appointed Walsh as the
first lieutenant-governor. It was understood that he would in turn invite Smallwood to form an
interim government. Bradley would receive a position in the federal cabinet.
Thus on 1 April 1949, Walsh swore in Smallwood and his cabinet. On Parliament Hill in Ottawa,
Bradley was sworn in as Secretary of State. "This is a day which will live long in North American history", he said.
It is a day of fulfilment - fulfilment of a vision of great men who planned the nation of
Canada more than 80 years ago; and as we stand here on this day of destiny, our thoughts fly
back through the years to those far-seeing men of the past - Macdonald, Brown and Cartier in
Canada and Carter and Shea in Newfoundland .... In fancy we see them now, bending over this
scene in silent and profound approval .... Thus we begin life as one people in an atmosphere
of unity. We are all Canadians now ....
But the events of the previous three and a half years had been deeply divisive in Newfoundland,
where many were saddened and embittered by the outcome. The journalist Albert Perlin published a
lament in the St. John's Daily News which expressed these feelings:
On this day of final parting sad nostalgic
Thoughts to bring hot tears surging to the
Thoughts that bring to mind the story of the
struggles of the past,
Of the men who built our island, nailed its colours to
Sold by only half the people, all too willing
For illusionary profits what the future might
They have bought confederation paying in the
Let us hope their expectations will be amply
Those who lost the fight for freedom have the
greater pride this day,
Though their country's independence lies the victim
of the fray.
This division was to shape the future of Newfoundland and Labrador as a province, and
discussion over the events of the 1940s will probably never end.
©1997, J.K. Hiller