Leased Bases - Agreement
CTS 1941 No. 2
Accord entre les gouvernements du Royaume-Uni et les États-Unis d'Amérique concernant les bases cédées à bail aux
Agreement between the Governments of the United Kingdom and the United States of America relating to the Bases Leased to the United States of America
London, March 27, 1941
Whereas the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, in consultation with the Government of Newfoundland, are desirous at this time of further effectuating the declarations made on their behalf by His Excellency the Most Honourable the Marquess of Lothian, C. H., His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, in his communication of the 2nd September, 1940,1 to the Secretary of State of the United States of America, a copy of which is set out in Annex I hereto and made a part hereof;
And whereas it is agreed that leases in respect of the naval and air bases to be leased to the United States of America in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Antigua, Trinidad and British Guiana, respectively, shall forthwith be executed substantially in the forms of the leases set out in Annex II hereto, which are hereby approved, and that a similar lease in respect of a base in the Bahamas shall be executed as soon as possible;
And whereas it is desired to determine by common agreement certain matters relating to the lease of the said bases, as provided in the communication of the 2nd September, 1940, and the reply thereto of the same date2 from the Honourable Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States, set out in Annex I and made a part hereof;
And whereas it is desired that this Agreement shall be fulfilled in a spirit of good neighbourliness between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the United States of America, and that details of its practical application shall be arranged by friendly co-operation;
The Undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have agreed as follows:
General Description of Rights
(1) The United States shall have all the rights, power and authority within the Leased Areas which are necessary for the establishment, use,
1 Voir le document 248.1 See Document 248.
2 Non reproduite.2 Not printed.
operation and defence thereof, or appropriate for their control, and all the rights, power and authority within the limits of territorial waters and air spaces adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, the Leased Areas, which are necessary to provide access to and defence of the Leased Areas, or appropriate for control thereof.
(2) The said rights, power and authority shall include, inter alia, the right, power and authority:
(a) to construct (including dredging and filling), maintain, operate, use, occupy and control the said Bases;
(b) to improve and deepen the harbours, channels, entrances and anchorages, and generally to fit the premises for use as naval and air bases;
(c) to control, so far as may be required for the efficient operation of the Bases, and within the limits of military necessity, anchorages, moorings and movements of ships and water-borne craft and the anchorages, moorings, landings, take-offs, movements and operations of aircraft;
(d) to regulate and control within the Leased Areas all communication within, to and from the areas leased;
(e) to install, maintain, use and operate under-sea and other defences, defence devices and controls, including detecting and other similar facilities.
(3) In the exercise of the above-mentioned rights, the United States agrees that the powers granted to it outside the Leased Areas will not be used unreasonably or, unless required by military necessity, so as to interfere with the necessary rights of navigation, aviation or communication to or from or within the Territories, but that they shall be used in the spirit of the fourth clause of the Preamble.
(4) In the practical application outside the Leased Areas of the foregoing paragraphs there shall be, as occasion requires, consultation between the Government of the United States and the Government of the United Kingdom.
Special Emergency Powers.
When the United States is engaged in war or in time of other emergency, the Government of the United Kingdom agree that the United States may exercise in the Territories and surrounding waters or air spaces all such rights, power and authority as may be necessary for conducting any military operations deemed desirable by the United States, but these rights will be exercised with all possible regard to the spirit of the fourth clause of the Preamble.
The United States shall be under no obligation to improve the Leased Areas or any part thereof for use as naval or air bases, or to exercise any right, power or authority granted in respect of the Leased Areas, or to maintain forces therein, or to provide for the defence thereof; but if and so long as any Leased Area, or any part thereof, is not used by the United States for the purposes in this Agreement set forth, the Government of the United Kingdom or the Government of the Territory may take such steps therein as shall be agreed with the United States to be desirable for the maintenance of public health, safety, law and order, and, if necessary, for defence.
(1) In any case in which
(a) a member of the United States forces, a national of the United States or a person who is not a British subject shall be charged with having committed, either within or without the Leased Areas, an offence of a military nature, punishable under the law of the United States, including, but not restricted to, treason, an offence relating to sabotage or espionage, or any other offence relating to the security and protection of United States naval and air Bases, establishments, equipment or other property or to operations of the Government of the United States in the Territory; or
(b) a British subject shall be charged with having committed any such offence within a Leased Area and shall be apprehended therein; or
(c) a person other than a British subject shall be charged with having committed an offence of any other nature within a Leased Area,
the United States shall have the absolute right in the first instance to assume and exercise jurisdiction with respect to such offence.
(2) If the United States shall elect not to assume and exercise such jurisdiction the United States Authorities shall, where such offence is punishable in virtue of legislation enacted pursuant to Article V or otherwise under the law of the Territory, so inform the Government of the Territory and shall, if it shall be agreed between the Government of the Territory and the United States authorities that the alleged offender should be brought to trial, surrender him to the appropriate authority in the Territory for that purpose.
(3) If a British subject shall be charged with having committed within a Leased Area an offence of the nature described in paragraph (1) (a) of this Article, and shall not be apprehended therein, he shall, if in the Territory outside the Leased Areas, be brought to trial before the courts of the Territory; or, if the offence is not punishable under the law of the Territory, he shall, on the request of the United States Authorities, be apprehended and surrendered to the United States Authorities, and the United States shall have the right to exercise jurisdiction with respect to the alleged offence.
(4) When the United States exercises jurisdiction under this Article and the person charged is a British subject, he shall be tried by a United States court sitting in a Leased Area in the Territory.
(5) Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to affect, prejudice or restrict the full exercise at all times of jurisdiction and control by the United States in matters of discipline and internal administration over members of the United States forces, as conferred by the law of the United States and any regulations made thereunder.
The Government of the Territory will take such steps as may from time to time be agreed to be necessary with a view to the enactment of legislation to ensure the adequate security and protection of the United States naval and air Bases, establishments, equipment and other property, and the operations of the United States under the Leases and this Agreement and the punishment of persons who may contravene any laws or regulations made for that purpose. The Government of the Territory will also from time to time consult with the United States Authorities in order that the laws and regulations of the United States and the Territory in relation to such matters may, so far as circumstances permit, be similar in character.
Arrest and Service of Process
(1) No arrest shall be made and no process, civil or criminal, shall be served within any Leased Area except with the permission of the Commanding Officer in charge of the United States forces in such Leased Area; but should the Commanding Officer refuse to grant such permission he shall (except in cases where the United States Authorities elect to assume and exercise jurisdiction in accordance with Article IV (1)) forthwith take the necessary steps to arrest the person charged and surrender him to the appropriate authority of the Territory or to serve such process, as the case may be, and to provide for the attendance of the server of such process before the appropriate court of the Territory or procure such server to make the necessary affidavit or declaration to prove such service.
(2) In cases where the courts of the United States have jurisdiction under Article IV, the Government of the Territory will on request give reciprocal facilities as regards the service of process and the arrest and surrender of alleged offenders.
(3) In this Article the expression “process” includes any process by way of summons, subpoena, warrant, writ or other judicial document for securing the attendance of a witness, or for the production of any documents or exhibits, required in any proceedings civil or criminal.
Right of Audience for United States Counsel
In cases in which a member of the United States forces shall be a party to civil or criminal proceedings in any court of the Territory by reason of some alleged act or omission arising out of or in the course of his official duty, United States counsel (authorized to practise before the courts of the United States) shall have the right of audience, provided that such counsel is in the service of the Government of the United States and appointed for that purpose either generally or specially by the appropriate authority.
Surrender of Offenders
Where a person charged with an offence which falls to be dealt with by the courts of the Territory is in a Leased Area, or a person charged with an offence which falls under Article IV to be dealt with by courts of the United States is in the Territory but outside the Leased Areas, such person shall be surrendered to the Government of the Territory or to the United States Authorities, as the case may be, in accordance with special arrangements made between that Government and those Authorities.
The United States shall have the right to employ and use all utilities, services and facilities, roads, highways, bridges, viaducts, canals and similar channels of transportation belonging to, or controlled or regulated by, the Government of the Territory or the Government of the United Kingdom, under conditions comparable to and no less favourable than those applicable from time to time to the Government of the United Kingdom.
(1) The United States shall have the right, after appropriate notification has been given to the Government of the Territory, to make topographic and hydrographic surveys outside the Leased Areas in any part of the Territory and waters adjacent thereto. Copies, with title and triangulation data, of any surveys so made will be furnished to the Government of the Territory.
(2) Notification and copies will be given to the United States Authorities of any such surveys carried out by the Government of the United Kingdom or the Government of the Territory.