Geological Hazards

Slope Instability




The Battery
- A Case Study

An Avalanche need a combination of a steep slope and a heavy snowfall.
A common trigger of an avalanche is a deposit of wet snow over ice or a hard crust.

Avalanches involve the rapid downslope movement of snow or ice, with or without sediment and rock. Avalanches require a combination of steep slopes and a heavy snowfall. A common trigger is the deposition of wet snow over ice or a hard crust, with failure occurring at the base of the snow. Alternatively, high winds can produce a cornice, which may break off, causing an avalanche on the slope below.

Incidences of avalanches in Newfoundland and Labrador are shown in the following map. The larger version provides pop-up information on locations, dates, deaths, and injuries, along with other comments and an accompanying table.

Avalanches Map Avalanches Map.
The larger version of this map shows the locations of all recorded avalanches in Newfoundland and Labrador from 1833 to 1997. Moving the mouse over any location will call up information on the landslide occurring in that place.

Map adapted by Don Walsh and Tina Riche, 2000.
Larger Version with more information. (46 kb)

Tilt Cove, Baie Verte Peninsula

In the late part of the 19th century and the first few years of the 20th century, several serious avalanches affected mining operations and communities on the Baie Verte Peninsula, and in the Bay of Islands. Sixteen people were killed in these disasters; the most complete documentation is for the March 11, 1912 avalanche that occurred at Tilt Cove. An avalanche struck two houses built at the head of the cove at the foot of a steep slope, one belonging to Mr. Francis Williams, manager of the Cape Copper Company, and the other belonging to a Mr. Cunningham, JP, the telegrapher and customs officer.

The Williams' home Larger Version with more information (48 kb).
The remains of the house
Larger Version with more information (40 kb).
The Home of Francis Williams.
On the left is the Williams' home at Tilt Cove, ca. 1910. On the right are the remains of the house following an avalanche in March 1912.
Left image courtesy of Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador (PANL A24-100).
Right image courtesy of the MacKinnon family.

In each home, the families were sitting down to tea when the avalanche struck. Vera Alcock, the daughter of Mr. Cunningham, was interviewed in 1996, and recalled that a heavy snow fall had followed freezing rain the previous day. Both houses were smashed by the avalanche, and Mr. Williams and his 13-year-old son were killed instantly. Two servants in the Williams household were also killed. Mrs. Williams and her two daughters were rescued after three and a half hours of burial, without serious injury. In the Cunningham household, most survived with minor injuries, but Edward Cunningham, aged 3, and a servant, Emily were buried, and crushed against the wood stove. They were rescued after two hours of digging. Edward survived with minor burns thanks to the efforts of Emily to keep him safe. Emily, however, was severely burned and died later.

Gravestone of Francis Williams Gravestone of Francis Williams.
Francis Williams and his son were killed by an avalanche in Tilt Cove in 1912.
Reproduced by permission of the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador © 1992.
Larger Version with more information (40 kb).

Images and text reproduced by permission of M. Batterson, D.G.E. Liverman, J. Ryan and D. Taylor, The Assessment of Geological Hazards and Disasters in Newfoundland: An Update. (St. John's: Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey, © 1999) unless otherwise noted.

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