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newfoundland n also new founde lande, newfound land, etc. [phonetics unavailable]. OED Newfound a: ~ land (1527, 1626 quots) for sense 1; OED ~ b (1845-), O Sup2 (1773-), DC (1880-) for sense 2. For comb in sense 3: NID ~ caribou; for sense 4: DAE bank n1 1 ~ bank (1635-), OED coffin sb 3 e naut (1833-) for ~ coffin, DC ~ Ranger Force (1965). See also BACCALAO, NEWLAND.
   1 The north-east coast of North America and its adjacent islands; esp the large island situated at the entrance to the Gulf of St Lawrence; that island and the territory of Labrador comprising the Colony and Dominion of Newfoundland; since 1949, the tenth province of Canada.
   [1502] 1962 Cabot Voyages 216 Item to the merchauntes of bristoll that have bene in the newe founde launde 20. [c1503] 1979 DUNBAR 120 ["To the King"] It micht have cuming in schortar quhyll / Fra [Calyecot] and the new fund Yle, / The partis of Transmeridiane. [1583] 1940 Gilbert's Voyages & Enterprises ii, 404 [Hayes' narrative] That which we doe call the Newfound land, and the Frenchmen Bacalaos, is an Iland, or rather (after the opinion of some) it consisteth of sundry Ilands and broken lands, situate in the North Regions of America, upon the gulfe and entrance of the great river called S Laurence in Canada. [1611] 1895 PROWSE 122 [London and Bristol Company's Charter] ... to inhabite and establish a Colony or Colonies in the Southerne and easterne p'tes of the country and Islande commonlie called Newfoundland. 1620 WHITBOURNE [sig. B1]Among my undertakings and imployments in Seafaring, the most part have been to an Iland, called New-found-land. 1628 HAYMAN1 31 The Aire, in Newfound-Land is wholesome good; / The fire, as sweet as any made of wood; / The Waters, very rich, both salt and fresh; / The Earth more rich, you know it is no lesse. Where all are good, Fire, Water, Earth, and Aire, What man made of these foure would not live there? [1662] 1963 YONGE 53-4 In February, my father shipped me to go Chyrurgeon of the Reformation ... bound for Newfoundland, to make a voyage. [1727] 1966 POPE 678 "The Lamentation of Glumdalclitch": O! squander not thy Grief; those Tears command / To weep upon our Cod in Newfound-Land: / The plenteous Pickle shall preserve the Fish, / And Europe taste thy Sorrows in her Dish. [1794] 1968 THOMAS 63 Newfoundland being in all parts intersected with Bogs, Barrens, Lakes, Morasses, Hills, Rivulets and Woods we find all places are plaster'd or thickly scatter'd with stones of all shapes and all sizes. [1869] 1966 DOYLE (ed) 64 "Anti-Confederation Song": Hurrah for our own native Isle, Newfoundland, / Not a stranger shall hold one inch of its strand, / Her face turns to Britain, her back to the Gulf, / Come near at your peril Canadian Wolf. 1869 MCCREA 6 She laughed at my calling it New-fnd-land, and said: 'Newfunlan'.' 1887 Colonist Christmas No 5 [On the quay at Poole] I axed him, 'Where be these goin' to, Mister?' 'You fule!' said he, 'these be for Newfunland.' 1911 HUTCHINSON 78-9 Newfoundland—accent on the last syllable, please, for this is the only way of speaking of it that can please a native. 1949 DULEY 4 But the basic characteristic of Newfoundland is drama. Climatically the country is deranged, flouting the calendar most of the year. Sometimes it likes a touch of spring in January, and frequently winter in June... One has to be tough to be a resident. 1951 Nfld & Lab Pilot i, 1 Newfoundland is a large island situated at the mouth of the Gulf of St Lawrence; it contains an area of 42,734 square miles [and] is of roughly triangular shape; its coasts are indented with deep bays and harbours, many of which are very fine and nearly all afford shelter to vessels during summer. [1959] 1965 PEACOCK (ed) i, 138 "Labrador": The Carey being our schooner's name as you may understand, / With a crowd of brave young fishermen brought up in Newfoundland.
   2 NEWFOUNDLAND DOG; also attrib.
   1745 CAREW 134 A fine bitch of the Newfoundland-Breed he enticed away by the Art which had rendered him so famous. [1771] 1792 CARTWRIGHT i, 87 He found the unfortunate Mr Jones frozen to death, with his faithful Newfoundland bitch by his side! He gave the poor creature what bread he had about him, but could not prevail on her to leave her master. 1863 HIND ii, 156 He soon missed the pet Newfoundland, and after a few hours discovered the mangled body of his favourite [dog] lying on the beach. 1883 HATTON & HARVEY 232 Landseer, as is well known, has immortalized one of the Newfoundland dogs in his celebrated picture entitled 'A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society,' and the breed to which he belonged is known as the 'Landseer Newfoundland.' [1923] 1946 PRATT 187 "The Big Fellow": And I thought of the big Newfoundland / I saw, asleep by a rock / The day before.1969 HORWOOD 191 The other native Canadian breed, the Newfoundland, originated on the east coast, at or near St John's. It is a huge, sweet-tempered animal, also with a natural affinity for water, and also with webbed feet, developed by natural selection over many generations. The Newfoundland is bigger, much more heavily furred, and with a larger, kinder-looking head than the water dogs. It is the greatest of all life-savers.
   3 In names of animals and birds: newfoundland beaver, ~ black-capped chickadee, ~ boreal chickadee, ~ caribou [see also CARIBOU], ~ deer [see also DEER], ~ grey jay, ~ hairy woodpecker, ~ hermit thrush, ~ lynx [see also LINK], ~ ovenbird, ~ pine grosbeak, ~ purple finch, ~ red crossbill, ~ robin [see also ROBIN REDBREAST], ~ small-billed waterthrush, ~ thrush, ~ veery, ~ winter wren, ~ wolf, ~ yellow warbler.
   1967 Bk of Nfld iii, 326 The Newfoundland beaver (Castor canadensis caecator) shows an excellent example of animal adaption to habitat which would be termed unsuitable in mainland areas. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 310-11 Newfoundland Black-Capped Chickadee. Parus atricapillus bartletti... A small bird with black cap and throat, white cheeks and ashy upper parts. Resident in Newfoundland... This bird was named for the well known Arctic explorer and Newfoundlander, the late Captain R A Bartlett. 1951 ibid 311 Newfoundland Boreal Chickadee. Parus hudsonicus rabbittsi. A small bird with a brown cap, black throat and general brownish-gray appearance. Resident in Newfoundland. We named this race in honour of the late Gower Rabbitts, former clerk of Game and Inland Fisheries, St John's. 1905 PROWSE 34 As a general rule, island races of wild animals are inferior to those of the great continents, but with the Newfoundland caribou ... this cannot be said to be the case. Far surpassing the European reindeer, of which it is now considered a sub-species, it is equal in size to the caribou of Eastern Canada, but distinctly finer in the matter of horn growth. [1822] 1928 CORMACK 32 The Newfoundland deer—and there is only one species in the Island—is a variety of the reindeer, or caribou; and like that animal, in every other country, it is migratory, always changing place with the seasons for the sake of its favourite kinds of food. Although they migrate in herds, they travel in files, with their heads in some degree to windward. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 303 Newfoundland Gray Jay. Perisoreus canadensis sanfordi... A gray bird, larger than a Robin, with white forehead, cheeks, throat and ring around neck, with fluffy plumage and no crest on head. Comes near campers and woods workers. Common resident. Ibid 287 Newfoundland Hairy Woodpecker ... Dendrocopos villosus terraenovae. Found throughout the province but usually restricted to heavier woods with a sprinkling of deciduous trees... It is more shy and retiring than its smaller relative, the Downy, but is more active and noisier. Ibid 320-1 Newfoundland Hermit Thrush. Hvlocichla guttata crymophila... A brown-backed bird with a spotted breast and rufous tail. Breeds in Newfoundland. Common summer resident. Like other thrushes [it] inhabits the dense woods; so is more frequently heard than seen. 1967 Bk of Nfld iii, 326 The Newfoundland Lynx (Lynx canadensis subsolanus) has about the same size and proportions as the mainland species but is darker. It is easily recognized by the cat-like face topped by tufted sharp-pointed ears, a black tipped tail and excessively large paws well suited for travel over soft ground and snow. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 352 Newfoundland Ovenbird. Seiurus aurocapillus furvior... An olive-brown bird with a light breast streaked with black. The nest is usually sunken in the moss or soil, is arched over like an old-fashioned brick oven. Ibid 373 Newfoundland Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola enucleator eschatosus... A Robin-sized finch; the males mostly rose-red, and the females gray with a yellowish tinge to head and rump. Breeds in Newfoundland. Common summer resident and fairly common winter resident. The Pine Grosbeak is known by all Newfoundlanders as the 'Mope.' Indeed, it does appear to mope, for it sits around on stunted spruces and will often allow very close approach. Ibid 372 Newfoundiand Purple Finch. Carpodacus purpureus nesophilus... A sparrow-sized bird mostly rosy-red, distinguished by the rather heavy bill. Breeds only in Newfoundland. Ibid 379-80 Newfoundland Red Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra pusilla... Adult males are brick-red; young males are yellow and females are yellow-gray. This parrot-like finch is unmistakable if you are close enough to see its crossed bill. This race breeds in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The local name [Spruce Mope] refers to their slow movements while feeding in the spruce tops. Ibid 317 Newfoundland Robin. Turdus migratorius nigrideus... Familiar to all persons, with its dark black and red breast. Breeds in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ungava. Abundant summer resident. Ibid 366 Newfoundland Rusty Blackbird... A rather short-tailed bird, slightly smaller than a Robin. In fall it becomes rusty above and brownish below. Breeds in Newfoundland. Ibid 353 Newfoundland Small-billed Water-thrush. Seiurus noveboracensis uliginosus... A brown-backed bird, with yellow underneath, which walks along banks of streams and ponds, constantly teetering. Breeds in Newfoundland. Common summer resident. [1766] 1971 BANKS 392 Robin or Newfoundland Thrush: Turdus migratorius nigrideus. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 325 Newfoundland veery. Hylocichlafus cescens fuliginosa... The most reddish-backed of our thrushes and with the smallest spots on the breast. Breeds in Newfoundland. Uncommon summer resident. Ibid 315-16 Newfoundland Winter Wren. Troglodytes troglodytes aquilonaris... A very small, dark-brown bird, which holds its stubby tail erect over its back. Breeds in Newfoundland. Uncommon summer resident and rare winter resident. 1974 NORTHCOTT 49 Canis lupus beothucus, the extinct Newfoundland wolf was closely related to the wolf which still occupies Labrador. From what is known about this species, it appears to have resembled the tundra wolf of the north more closely than the timber wolf familiar in southern Canada. It was reported to have been light in color. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 342 Newfoundland Yellow Warbler. Dendroica petechia amnicola... Our only all-yellow bird. Abundant summer resident. This all-yellow bird is locally known as 'yellow-hammer,' but this name seems to be applie also to all small birds showing yellow in their lumage.
   4 Attrib, comb newfoundland banks: areas of shoal water forming the offshore fishing grounds; BANK, GRAND BANK(S).
   [1794] 1968 THOMAS 181 The Newfoundland Banks are the most celebrated in the World for Fish. 1934 LOUNSBURY 8 The Newfoundland Banks are separated from those of Nova Scotia by a great submarine channel, the Laurentian Valley, which is from fifty to seventy miles wide. It is broader near the edge of the continental shelf and attains a depth of 15,000 feet. The banks which lie north and east of the great channel and south and southeast of Newfoundland are Burgeo, St Pierre, Green, the Grand Bank proper, and Flemish Cap. [1941] 1974 BRIDLE (ed) i, 193 Problems relating to the operation of foreign trawlers off the Newfoundland Banks...
   newfoundland brewis [phonetics unavailable]: see BREWIS, FISHERMAN'S BREWIS.
   newfoundland coffin: early sea-going vessel locally constructed.
   1819 ANSPACH 364 The few attempts that have hitherto [1812] been made to build in that island ships or brigs, intended for long voyages, have ended in the production of vessels that might perhaps live seven years at the most, and which were designated there by the ominous appellation of Newfoundland coffins.
   newfoundland company: in the seventeenth century, a group authorized by charter to establish a plantation in Newfoundland.
   1628 HAYMAN1 31 To the right worshipfull Iohn Slany, Treasurer to the Newfound-land Company, and to all the rest of that Honorable Corporation. 1708 OLDMIXON 5 He therefore resolv'd to retire to America, and finding the Newfoundland Company made no use of their Grant, he thought of this Place for his Retreat.
   newfoundland dance: a lively, vigorous group step-dance.
   1884 STEARNS 293 [At Bonne Espdrance] Monday night, for our benefit, the natives performed a Labrador, or rather Newfoundland dance, at one of the native cabins near by. A crowd of about thirty assembled and danced till nearly morning. Their main object seemed to be to 'start the sweat, and see who could make the most noise.' It seemed as if the very house would come down over our heads as they hammered on the floor with their top-legged boots pounding with the full force of their powers.
   newfoundland dialect: any of the varieties of English spoken by native Newfoundlanders; Newfoundland English.
   [1836 [WIX]2 143 The difference of extraction has occasioned, as may be supposed, a marked dissimilarity between the descendants of Jersey-men, Frenchmen, Irish, Scotch, and English people. The people, too, with whom the first settlers and their immediate descendants may have had contact, or intercourse, have attributed much to the formation of the dialect, character, and habits of the present settlers.] 1922 Sat Ev Post 195, 2 Sep, p. 129 ... a babel of loud talk, in the half-comprehensible Newfoundland dialect, troubled that dim, stifling air. 1967 Bk of Nfld iii, 560 It must not be thought that Newfoundland dialects can be described purely in terms of their British and Irish origins, or of the elements of those origins which have been retained in the new land. In many respects local speech has been conservative; but in others it has been immensely creative and innovating.
   newfoundland dog: see NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.
   newfoundland dwarf birch: Betula michauxii (1970 Gray's Botany 536).
   newfoundland fish: cod-fish; FISH.
   1623 [T C] A Short Discourse [sig. Blv] Lastly, there can no reason be given to the contrary, why the forraine vent of the Newfoundland fish ... may not yearly return great quantities of mony. [1943] 1974 BRIDLE (ed) i, 1247 Dunn tells me that when he was in Washington, the American authorities with whom he was in discussion concerning the purchase of Newfoundland fish, told him that Newfoundland must control the export price or the United States would not continue to deal with them. 1973 HORWOOD 45-6 The Sunner was chartered to take another load of drums and half drums of Newfoundland fish, the whole cargo to be delivered in Maceio, Brazil.
   newfoundland fish-box: jocular term for a sailing vessel engaged in transporting dried cod to foreign markets.
   1930 BARNES 64 Them days every one knew that the China Tea Clippers and the Newfoundland Fish Boxes, as they were called, were the hardest driven ships afloat because they had to run for markets.
   newfoundland fishery: the marine fishing industry in Newfoundland waters, esp the codfishery. See also FISHERY.
   [1693] 1793 REEVES xx That for the better accommodation of the persons belonging to vessels employed in the Newfoundland fishery, it shall be made lawful for the masters and crews belonging to any vessels fitted out and employed in that fishery... 1712 West-India Merchant 7 Nor are we to wonder at this, for of late years they have imploy'd in the Newfoundland fishery 4 or 500 Sail of Ships per ann. of good Burden. 1846 TOCQUE 216 The Newfoundland fishery commences at some places in May. 1954 INNIS 31 The English advanced from a position of minor importance in the Newfoundland fishery at the beginning of the second half of the [16th] century to one of major importance at the end.
   newfoundland hardwood [phonetics unavailable]: birch (Betula papyrifera; B. lutea).
   T 54/60-64 Now my claws was made out of birch, Newfoundland birch, which was called Newfoundland hardwood.
   newfoundland indian: see INDIAN.
   newfoundland-labrador: the north-eastern peninsula of North America, lying between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence, which forms part of the Province of Newfoundland; LABRADOR. Cp CANADIAN-LABRADOR.
   1909 BROWNE 104 The Labrador missions [became part of the parish of Fortune Harbour in 1834]. From that date Newfoundland priests have visited the coast regularly, though Canadian priests still have jurisdiction on Newfoundland-Labrador. 1946 MACKAY (ed) 181 The terms Canadian-Labrador and Newfoundland- Labrador were once very common and are still frequently used in Newfoundland. The Canadian-Labrador, a stretch of coastline from the St John river in the Province of Quebec (later from Mt Joli) to Blanc Sablon, is now part of the Province of Quebec, and the term Labrador, as mentioned later, is officially restricted to the Newfoundland territory on the mainland. 1947 TANNER 42 Newfoundland's share is called Newfoundland-Labrador.
   newfoundland-man: see NEWFOUNDLAND-MAN.
   newfoundland oak: yellow or grey birch (Betula lutea); WITCH-HAZEL (1956 ROULEAU 34).
   1938 MACDERMOTT 251 ... a strip of Witch Hazel or 'Newfoundland Oak.'
   newfoundland ranger: officer in an early twentieth-century force (1935-49) engaged in police and other duties in parts of Newfoundland and Labrador outside the jurisdiction of the St John's constabulary; RANGER.
   [1941] 1974 BRIDLE (ed) i, 450 Passes for admission to the area have been issued by the Department of Public Utilities or Department of Justice. Passes have also been issued by the Newfoundland Rangers. 1966 BEN-DOR 192 In 1934 the first policemen were stationed on the coast and in [1935], when the new body of the Newfoundland Rangers was formed, it took over the police duties in Labrador. 1977 Inuit Land Use 107 After 1934, they might obtain relief from the Newfoundland Rangers, who were responsible for enforcing the game laws, which prohibited the hunting of caribou after Easter.
   newfoundland regiment: any of several volunteer military units formed in Newfoundland; see also BLUE PUTTEE.
   [1781] 1964 NICHOLSON 20 The Newfoundland Regiment is completed, in good order, and very well disciplined. [1812] 1954 SAUNDERS 14 In consequence of the nature of the service required from the Royal Newfoundland Regiment necessarily subdividing that corps into small detachments, Major Heathcote is directed to leave the colours of the Regiment in this Garrison. 1964 NICHOLSON 112 The first commissions for the officers of the Newfoundland Regiment were granted by His Excellencv on September 21 [1914] when ten captains and two lieutenants were appointed.
   newfoundland spell: a rest from the tedium of one type of work by a change to another (P 148-64). See also SPELL n.
   newfoundland trade: the fishery in Newfoundland. esp the supplying of men engaged in the cod-fishery and the marketing of the dried and salted product overseas; see also FISH TRADE. TRADE.
   1765 WILLIAMS 8 Unfortunately for the Government, as well as those concerned in the Newfoundland Trade ... several of the Forts were dismantled. [1769] 1961 FAY 22 A winter of bread riots in Jersey—official emphasis on 'the great disadvantages agriculture is reduced to, by the great number of hands yearly employed in the Newfoundland trade.' [1770] 1792 CARTWRIGHT i, 2 In consequence of our partnership it was resolved, that we should purchase from Messrs Perkins and Coghlan (who are in the Newfoundland trade) a schooner of eighty tons, then lying in the harbour of Poole. [1817] 1953 JOB 24 Have you a large capital employed in the Newfoundland trade at present? 1953 Nfld Fish Develop Report 39 The losses of the Newfoundland trade in European countries—both shore-cure and Labrador fish—were affected but the latter, perhaps especially.
   newfoundland turbot: see TURBOT.
   newfoundland voyage: see VOYAGE.

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