newfoundland n also new founde lande, newfound land, etc. [phonetics
unavailable]. OED Newfound a: ~ land (1527, 1626 quots) for sense 1; OED ~
b (1845-), O Sup2 (1773-), DC (1880-) for sense 2. For comb in
sense 3: NID ~ caribou; for sense 4: DAE bank n1 1 ~ bank
(1635-), OED coffin sb 3 e naut (1833-) for ~ coffin, DC ~ Ranger Force
(1965). See also BACCALAO, NEWLAND.
1 The north-east coast of
North America and its adjacent islands; esp the large island situated at the entrance to
the Gulf of St Lawrence; that island and the territory of Labrador comprising the Colony
and Dominion of Newfoundland; since 1949, the tenth province of Canada.
 1962 Cabot Voyages 216 Item to the merchauntes of
bristoll that have bene in the newe founde launde 20. [c1503] 1979 DUNBAR 120 ["To the
King"] It micht have cuming in schortar quhyll / Fra [Calyecot] and the new fund Yle, /
The partis of Transmeridiane.  1940 Gilbert's Voyages & Enterprises ii,
404 [Hayes' narrative] That which we doe call the Newfound land, and the Frenchmen
Bacalaos, is an Iland, or rather (after the opinion of some) it consisteth of sundry
Ilands and broken lands, situate in the North Regions of America, upon the gulfe and
entrance of the great river called S Laurence in Canada.  1895 PROWSE 122 [London
and Bristol Company's Charter] ... to inhabite and establish a Colony or Colonies in the
Southerne and easterne p'tes of the country and Islande commonlie called Newfoundland.
1620 WHITBOURNE [sig. B1]Among my undertakings and imployments in Seafaring, the most
part have been to an Iland, called New-found-land. 1628 HAYMAN1 31 The
Aire, in Newfound-Land is wholesome good; / The fire, as sweet as any made of
wood; / The Waters, very rich, both salt and fresh; / The Earth more rich, you know it is
no lesse. Where all are good, Fire, Water, Earth, and Aire, What man made
of these foure would not live there?  1963 YONGE 53-4 In February, my father
shipped me to go Chyrurgeon of the Reformation ... bound for Newfoundland, to make
a voyage.  1966 POPE 678 "The Lamentation of Glumdalclitch": O! squander not thy
Grief; those Tears command / To weep upon our Cod in Newfound-Land: / The
plenteous Pickle shall preserve the Fish, / And Europe taste thy Sorrows in her
Dish.  1968 THOMAS 63 Newfoundland being in all parts intersected with Bogs,
Barrens, Lakes, Morasses, Hills, Rivulets and Woods we find all places are plaster'd or
thickly scatter'd with stones of all shapes and all sizes.  1966 DOYLE (ed) 64
"Anti-Confederation Song": Hurrah for our own native Isle, Newfoundland, / Not a stranger
shall hold one inch of its strand, / Her face turns to Britain, her back to the Gulf, /
Come near at your peril Canadian Wolf. 1869 MCCREA 6 She laughed at my calling it
New-fnd-land, and said: 'Newfunlan'.' 1887 Colonist Christmas No 5 [On the quay at
Poole] I axed him, 'Where be these goin' to, Mister?' 'You fule!' said he, 'these be for
Newfunland.' 1911 HUTCHINSON 78-9 Newfoundlandaccent on the last syllable, please,
for this is the only way of speaking of it that can please a native. 1949 DULEY 4 But the
basic characteristic of Newfoundland is drama. Climatically the country is deranged,
flouting the calendar most of the year. Sometimes it likes a touch of spring in January,
and frequently winter in June... One has to be tough to be a resident. 1951 Nfld &
Lab Pilot i, 1 Newfoundland is a large island situated at the mouth of the Gulf of St
Lawrence; it contains an area of 42,734 square miles [and] is of roughly triangular
shape; its coasts are indented with deep bays and harbours, many of which are very fine
and nearly all afford shelter to vessels during summer.  1965 PEACOCK (ed) i, 138
"Labrador": The Carey being our schooner's name as you may understand, / With a
crowd of brave young fishermen brought up in Newfoundland.
NEWFOUNDLAND DOG; also attrib.
1745 CAREW 134 A fine bitch of the
Newfoundland-Breed he enticed away by the Art which had rendered him so famous.
 1792 CARTWRIGHT i, 87 He found the unfortunate Mr Jones frozen to death, with his
faithful Newfoundland bitch by his side! He gave the poor creature what bread he had
about him, but could not prevail on her to leave her master. 1863 HIND ii, 156 He soon
missed the pet Newfoundland, and after a few hours discovered the mangled body of his
favourite [dog] lying on the beach. 1883 HATTON & HARVEY 232 Landseer, as is well
known, has immortalized one of the Newfoundland dogs in his celebrated picture entitled
'A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society,' and the breed to which he belonged is
known as the 'Landseer Newfoundland.'  1946 PRATT 187 "The Big Fellow": And I
thought of the big Newfoundland / I saw, asleep by a rock / The day before.1969 HORWOOD
191 The other native Canadian breed, the Newfoundland, originated on the east coast, at
or near St John's. It is a huge, sweet-tempered animal, also with a natural affinity for
water, and also with webbed feet, developed by natural selection over many generations.
The Newfoundland is bigger, much more heavily furred, and with a larger, kinder-looking
head than the water dogs. It is the greatest of all life-savers.
In names of animals and birds: newfoundland beaver, ~ black-capped
chickadee, ~ boreal chickadee, ~ caribou [see also CARIBOU], ~
deer [see also DEER], ~ grey jay, ~ hairy woodpecker, ~ hermit thrush, ~ lynx
[see also LINK], ~ ovenbird, ~ pine grosbeak, ~ purple finch, ~ red crossbill, ~
robin [see also ROBIN REDBREAST], ~ small-billed waterthrush, ~ thrush, ~ veery, ~
winter wren, ~ wolf, ~ yellow warbler.
1967 Bk of Nfld
iii, 326 The Newfoundland beaver (Castor canadensis caecator) shows an excellent
example of animal adaption to habitat which would be termed unsuitable in mainland areas.
1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 310-11 Newfoundland Black-Capped Chickadee. Parus
atricapillus bartletti... A small bird with black cap and throat, white cheeks and
ashy upper parts. Resident in Newfoundland... This bird was named for the well known
Arctic explorer and Newfoundlander, the late Captain R A Bartlett. 1951 ibid 311
Newfoundland Boreal Chickadee. Parus hudsonicus rabbittsi. A small bird with a
brown cap, black throat and general brownish-gray appearance. Resident in Newfoundland.
We named this race in honour of the late Gower Rabbitts, former clerk of Game and Inland
Fisheries, St John's. 1905 PROWSE 34 As a general rule, island races of wild animals are
inferior to those of the great continents, but with the Newfoundland caribou ... this
cannot be said to be the case. Far surpassing the European reindeer, of which it is now
considered a sub-species, it is equal in size to the caribou of Eastern Canada, but
distinctly finer in the matter of horn growth.  1928 CORMACK 32 The Newfoundland
deerand there is only one species in the Islandis a variety of the reindeer,
or caribou; and like that animal, in every other country, it is migratory, always
changing place with the seasons for the sake of its favourite kinds of food. Although
they migrate in herds, they travel in files, with their heads in some degree to windward.
1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 303 Newfoundland Gray Jay. Perisoreus canadensis
sanfordi... A gray bird, larger than a Robin, with white forehead, cheeks, throat and
ring around neck, with fluffy plumage and no crest on head. Comes near campers and woods
workers. Common resident. Ibid 287 Newfoundland Hairy Woodpecker ... Dendrocopos
villosus terraenovae. Found throughout the province but usually restricted to heavier
woods with a sprinkling of deciduous trees... It is more shy and retiring than its
smaller relative, the Downy, but is more active and noisier. Ibid 320-1 Newfoundland
Hermit Thrush. Hvlocichla guttata crymophila... A brown-backed bird with a spotted
breast and rufous tail. Breeds in Newfoundland. Common summer resident. Like other
thrushes [it] inhabits the dense woods; so is more frequently heard than seen. 1967 Bk
of Nfld iii, 326 The Newfoundland Lynx (Lynx canadensis subsolanus) has about
the same size and proportions as the mainland species but is darker. It is easily
recognized by the cat-like face topped by tufted sharp-pointed ears, a black tipped tail
and excessively large paws well suited for travel over soft ground and snow. 1951 PETERS
& BURLEIGH 352 Newfoundland Ovenbird. Seiurus aurocapillus furvior... An
olive-brown bird with a light breast streaked with black. The nest is usually sunken in
the moss or soil, is arched over like an old-fashioned brick oven. Ibid 373 Newfoundland
Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola enucleator eschatosus... A Robin-sized finch; the males
mostly rose-red, and the females gray with a yellowish tinge to head and rump. Breeds in
Newfoundland. Common summer resident and fairly common winter resident. The Pine Grosbeak
is known by all Newfoundlanders as the 'Mope.' Indeed, it does appear to mope, for it
sits around on stunted spruces and will often allow very close approach. Ibid 372
Newfoundiand Purple Finch. Carpodacus purpureus nesophilus... A sparrow-sized bird
mostly rosy-red, distinguished by the rather heavy bill. Breeds only in Newfoundland.
Ibid 379-80 Newfoundland Red Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra pusilla... Adult males
are brick-red; young males are yellow and females are yellow-gray. This parrot-like finch
is unmistakable if you are close enough to see its crossed bill. This race breeds in
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The local name [Spruce Mope] refers to their slow movements
while feeding in the spruce tops. Ibid 317 Newfoundland Robin. Turdus migratorius
nigrideus... Familiar to all persons, with its dark black and red breast. Breeds in
Newfoundland, Labrador and Ungava. Abundant summer resident. Ibid 366 Newfoundland Rusty
Blackbird... A rather short-tailed bird, slightly smaller than a Robin. In fall it
becomes rusty above and brownish below. Breeds in Newfoundland. Ibid 353 Newfoundland
Small-billed Water-thrush. Seiurus noveboracensis uliginosus... A brown-backed
bird, with yellow underneath, which walks along banks of streams and ponds, constantly
teetering. Breeds in Newfoundland. Common summer resident.  1971 BANKS 392 Robin or
Newfoundland Thrush: Turdus migratorius nigrideus. 1951 PETERS & BURLEIGH 325
Newfoundland veery. Hylocichlafus cescens fuliginosa... The most reddish-backed of
our thrushes and with the smallest spots on the breast. Breeds in Newfoundland. Uncommon
summer resident. Ibid 315-16 Newfoundland Winter Wren. Troglodytes troglodytes
aquilonaris... A very small, dark-brown bird, which holds its stubby tail erect over
its back. Breeds in Newfoundland. Uncommon summer resident and rare winter resident. 1974
NORTHCOTT 49 Canis lupus beothucus, the extinct Newfoundland wolf was closely
related to the wolf which still occupies Labrador. From what is known about this species,
it appears to have resembled the tundra wolf of the north more closely than the timber
wolf familiar in southern Canada. It was reported to have been light in color. 1951
PETERS & BURLEIGH 342 Newfoundland Yellow Warbler. Dendroica petechia amnicola...
Our only all-yellow bird. Abundant summer resident. This all-yellow bird is locally
known as 'yellow-hammer,' but this name seems to be applie also to all small birds
showing yellow in their lumage.
4 Attrib, comb newfoundland
banks: areas of shoal water forming the offshore fishing grounds; BANK, GRAND
 1968 THOMAS 181 The Newfoundland Banks are the
most celebrated in the World for Fish. 1934 LOUNSBURY 8 The Newfoundland Banks are
separated from those of Nova Scotia by a great submarine channel, the Laurentian Valley,
which is from fifty to seventy miles wide. It is broader near the edge of the continental
shelf and attains a depth of 15,000 feet. The banks which lie north and east of the great
channel and south and southeast of Newfoundland are Burgeo, St Pierre, Green, the Grand
Bank proper, and Flemish Cap.  1974 BRIDLE (ed) i, 193 Problems relating to the
operation of foreign trawlers off the Newfoundland Banks...
newfoundland brewis [phonetics unavailable]: see BREWIS,
newfoundland coffin: early sea-going
vessel locally constructed.
1819 ANSPACH 364 The few attempts that
have hitherto  been made to build in that island ships or brigs, intended for long
voyages, have ended in the production of vessels that might perhaps live seven
years at the most, and which were designated there by the ominous appellation of
newfoundland company: in the
seventeenth century, a group authorized by charter to establish a plantation in
1628 HAYMAN1 31 To the right worshipfull
Iohn Slany, Treasurer to the Newfound-land Company, and to all the rest of that Honorable
Corporation. 1708 OLDMIXON 5 He therefore resolv'd to retire to America, and
finding the Newfoundland Company made no use of their Grant, he thought of this
Place for his Retreat.
newfoundland dance: a lively,
vigorous group step-dance.
1884 STEARNS 293 [At Bonne Espdrance]
Monday night, for our benefit, the natives performed a Labrador, or rather Newfoundland
dance, at one of the native cabins near by. A crowd of about thirty assembled and danced
till nearly morning. Their main object seemed to be to 'start the sweat, and see who
could make the most noise.' It seemed as if the very house would come down over our heads
as they hammered on the floor with their top-legged boots pounding with the full force of
newfoundland dialect: any of the varieties of
English spoken by native Newfoundlanders; Newfoundland English.
[1836 [WIX]2 143 The difference of extraction has
occasioned, as may be supposed, a marked dissimilarity between the descendants of
Jersey-men, Frenchmen, Irish, Scotch, and English people. The people, too, with whom the
first settlers and their immediate descendants may have had contact, or intercourse, have
attributed much to the formation of the dialect, character, and habits of the present
settlers.] 1922 Sat Ev Post 195, 2 Sep, p. 129 ... a babel of loud talk, in the
half-comprehensible Newfoundland dialect, troubled that dim, stifling air. 1967 Bk of
Nfld iii, 560 It must not be thought that Newfoundland dialects can be described
purely in terms of their British and Irish origins, or of the elements of those origins
which have been retained in the new land. In many respects local speech has been
conservative; but in others it has been immensely creative and innovating.
newfoundland dog: see NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.
newfoundland dwarf birch: Betula michauxii (1970
Gray's Botany 536).
newfoundland fish: cod-fish;
1623 [T C] A Short Discourse [sig. Blv]
Lastly, there can no reason be given to the contrary, why the forraine vent of the
Newfoundland fish ... may not yearly return great quantities of mony.  1974
BRIDLE (ed) i, 1247 Dunn tells me that when he was in Washington, the American
authorities with whom he was in discussion concerning the purchase of Newfoundland fish,
told him that Newfoundland must control the export price or the United States would not
continue to deal with them. 1973 HORWOOD 45-6 The Sunner was chartered to take
another load of drums and half drums of Newfoundland fish, the whole cargo to be
delivered in Maceio, Brazil.
newfoundland fish-box: jocular
term for a sailing vessel engaged in transporting dried cod to foreign markets.
1930 BARNES 64 Them days every one knew that the China Tea Clippers
and the Newfoundland Fish Boxes, as they were called, were the hardest driven ships
afloat because they had to run for markets.
fishery: the marine fishing industry in Newfoundland waters, esp the codfishery. See
 1793 REEVES xx That for the better
accommodation of the persons belonging to vessels employed in the Newfoundland
fishery, it shall be made lawful for the masters and crews belonging to any vessels
fitted out and employed in that fishery... 1712 West-India Merchant 7 Nor are we
to wonder at this, for of late years they have imploy'd in the Newfoundland
fishery 4 or 500 Sail of Ships per ann. of good Burden. 1846 TOCQUE 216 The
Newfoundland fishery commences at some places in May. 1954 INNIS 31 The English advanced
from a position of minor importance in the Newfoundland fishery at the beginning of the
second half of the [16th] century to one of major importance at the end.
newfoundland hardwood [phonetics unavailable]: birch
(Betula papyrifera; B. lutea).
T 54/60-64 Now my claws was
made out of birch, Newfoundland birch, which was called Newfoundland hardwood.
newfoundland indian: see INDIAN.
newfoundland-labrador: the north-eastern peninsula of North
America, lying between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St Lawrence, which forms part of the
Province of Newfoundland; LABRADOR. Cp CANADIAN-LABRADOR.
BROWNE 104 The Labrador missions [became part of the parish of Fortune Harbour in 1834].
From that date Newfoundland priests have visited the coast regularly, though Canadian
priests still have jurisdiction on Newfoundland-Labrador. 1946 MACKAY (ed) 181 The terms
Canadian-Labrador and Newfoundland- Labrador were once very common and are
still frequently used in Newfoundland. The Canadian-Labrador, a stretch of coastline from
the St John river in the Province of Quebec (later from Mt Joli) to Blanc Sablon, is now
part of the Province of Quebec, and the term Labrador, as mentioned later, is
officially restricted to the Newfoundland territory on the mainland. 1947 TANNER 42
Newfoundland's share is called Newfoundland-Labrador.
newfoundland-man: see NEWFOUNDLAND-MAN.
newfoundland oak: yellow or grey birch (Betula
lutea); WITCH-HAZEL (1956 ROULEAU 34).
1938 MACDERMOTT 251 ...
a strip of Witch Hazel or 'Newfoundland Oak.'
ranger: officer in an early twentieth-century force (1935-49) engaged in police and
other duties in parts of Newfoundland and Labrador outside the jurisdiction of the St
John's constabulary; RANGER.
 1974 BRIDLE (ed) i, 450 Passes
for admission to the area have been issued by the Department of Public Utilities or
Department of Justice. Passes have also been issued by the Newfoundland Rangers. 1966
BEN-DOR 192 In 1934 the first policemen were stationed on the coast and in , when
the new body of the Newfoundland Rangers was formed, it took over the police duties in
Labrador. 1977 Inuit Land Use 107 After 1934, they might obtain relief from the
Newfoundland Rangers, who were responsible for enforcing the game laws, which prohibited
the hunting of caribou after Easter.
any of several volunteer military units formed in Newfoundland; see also BLUE PUTTEE.
 1964 NICHOLSON 20 The Newfoundland Regiment is completed,
in good order, and very well disciplined.  1954 SAUNDERS 14 In consequence of the
nature of the service required from the Royal Newfoundland Regiment necessarily
subdividing that corps into small detachments, Major Heathcote is directed to leave the
colours of the Regiment in this Garrison. 1964 NICHOLSON 112 The first commissions for
the officers of the Newfoundland Regiment were granted by His Excellencv on September 21
 when ten captains and two lieutenants were appointed.
newfoundland spell: a rest from the tedium of one type of
work by a change to another (P 148-64). See also SPELL n.
newfoundland trade: the fishery in Newfoundland. esp the
supplying of men engaged in the cod-fishery and the marketing of the dried and salted
product overseas; see also FISH TRADE. TRADE.
1765 WILLIAMS 8
Unfortunately for the Government, as well as those concerned in the Newfoundland Trade
... several of the Forts were dismantled.  1961 FAY 22 A winter of bread riots in
Jerseyofficial emphasis on 'the great disadvantages agriculture is reduced to, by
the great number of hands yearly employed in the Newfoundland trade.'  1792
CARTWRIGHT i, 2 In consequence of our partnership it was resolved, that we should
purchase from Messrs Perkins and Coghlan (who are in the Newfoundland trade) a schooner
of eighty tons, then lying in the harbour of Poole.  1953 JOB 24 Have you a large
capital employed in the Newfoundland trade at present? 1953 Nfld Fish Develop Report
39 The losses of the Newfoundland trade in European countriesboth shore-cure
and Labrador fishwere affected but the latter, perhaps especially.
newfoundland turbot: see TURBOT.
newfoundland voyage: see VOYAGE.