History of the Colony of Avalon

Migratory Fishery

Permanent Settlement at Avalon

Kirke's Plantation

Dutch Raid of 1673

Winter of 1696
Special Documents:

Historical documents

Ferryland names

Winter of 1696

Hostilities between England and France had been intermittent throughout the 17th century, but war between the two nations was declared formally in May, 1689. Settlements in the New World were soon caught up in the conflict, and Ferryland was no exception. An attack on English settlements on the Avalon Peninsula was planned for the winter of 1696.

French attack of Ferryland, 1696.
Reproduced by permission of the Colony Café. Painting by Stewart Montgomerie, 1997. Original housed in the Colony Café, "The Pool", Ferryland. The painting can be viewed during regular business hours.
Larger Version (37 kb)
1696 French attack of Ferryland

French forces were to depart from Placentia for the eastern Avalon, one under Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville by land, and a second force, by sea, under the Governor of Terre-Neuve, Jacques-François de Brouillon.

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville.
From Justin Winsor, ed., Narrative and Critical History of America: The English and French in North America 1689-1763, Vol. V (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 1887) 15.
Larger Version (63 kb)

De Brouillan's force of seven ships, a number of smaller vessels and some 700 men were assembled at Placentia before d'Iberville's march was ready to commence. De Brouillon, perhaps tired of the delay and with an eye to the booty to be taken from the English settlers, set out in September for the English Shore. De Brouillon attacked Bay Bulls, burned five small forts and caused the English there to burn a frigate, the Sapphire, and retreat to Ferryland.

Nocturnal from H.M.S. Sapphire
A nocturnal recovered from the English 17th-century frigate, H.M.S. Sapphire.
Courtesy of the Department of Canadian Heritage, Parks Canada, Federal Archaeology. ©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Canada.
Larger Version with more information (10 kb)

On Monday, September 21, 1696, French troops landed at Ferryland and quickly overwhelmed the settlement. At the time of the attack, d'Iberville was exploring the upper reaches of Placentia Bay, looking for the best overland route to the English shore.

The French looted and burned the entire settlement and sent most of the inhabitants to spend a destitute winter in Barnstaple and, later, in Appledore in the English West Country. Despite their situation, the settlers returned to the West Country may have been the lucky ones. Captives that the French hoped to ransom were imprisoned at Placentia.

Map of Placentia, ca. 1696.
When the French attacked Avalon in 1696 they took the three Kirke brothers captive and were probably hoping to ransom them. David Jr., Philip and George Kirke were imprisoned at Placentia, where two of them died. The third brother died a short time later in St. John's.

From Baron de Lahontan, New Voyages to North America (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1905) 345. Reprinted from the 1703 English edition, includes facsimile of original 1703 map. Original housed in the National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Text information partially based upon Jean-Pierre Proulx, The military history of Placentia: a study of the French fortifications; Placentia: 1713-1811, History and Archaeology Series, vol. 26 (Ottawa, Ontario: National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, ©1979) 98.
Larger Version with more information (81 kb)
Map of Placentia, ca. 1696

David Kirke, Jr., and one of his brothers died at Placentia; the third surviving son of Sir David and Lady Sara Kirke died at St. John's a short time later, clearly a result of his imprisonment.

The settlers deported to Barnstaple and Appledore returned to Ferryland and reestablished the settlement the following spring. The winter of 1696-97 is the only period since August 1621 when Ferryland was not occupied by Europeans.

Top of Page

© 1999, Colony of Avalon Foundation.

Revised March 2002.

Partnered Project Heritage Web Site Project
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Heritage Web Site Project Site Map Search Home Search Home Site Map Visiting the Colony of Avalon Artifacts Archaeology Walking Tour