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British Range of Polygonum viviparum (after Moss)
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mountains of New Hampshire, Vermont, etc. (Britton and Brown) ; mountain-tops and river-banks (Fernald).

CALAMA GROSTIS CANADENSIS, var. LANGSDORFI.—Low grounds, across Canada (Macoun) ; grassy shores and borders of woods (St. John) ; moist meadows, Labrador, mountains of New England, Lake Superior, etc. (Gray's Man.) ; south to mountains of New England and New Yotk, etc. (Britton and Brown) ; granitic mountains (Fernald).

CAREX CANESCENS.—Bogs and swamps from the Atlantic to the Pacific (Macoun) ; sloughs, meadows, thickets and borders of woods (St. John) ; wet places (Gray's Man.) ; swamps and bogs (Britton and Brown).

CAREX BRUNNESCENS.—Alpine or subalpine, across the continent (Macoun).

CAREX LENTICULARIS.—Beds of rivers, growing in crevices of rocks (Macoun) ; clamp open spots (St. John) ; gravelly or sandy shores, Labrador to the Mackenzie, etc. (Gray's Man.) ; shores (Britton and Brown) ; granitic mountains and shores (Fernald).

CAREX RARIFLORA.—Peat bogs (Macoun).

CAREX VESICARIA.—Ditches and along streams (Macoun) as C. monile ; swales (St. John) ; meadows and low grounds, across the continent (Gray's Man) ; marshes and wet meadows (Britton and Brown).

JUNCUS FILIFORMIS.—Along river margins, in gravel, and on lake shores, across the continent (Macoun) ; grassy shores and sandy borders of ponds (St. John) ; wet shores and bogs (Gray's Man) ; south to the mountains of Pennsylvania, etc. (Britton and Brown).

SALIX PLANIFOLIA. (S. chlorophylla and S. phylicifolia of American botanists). Labrador to Lake Winnipeg and Great Slave Lake (Macoun) ; brooksides and river banks (St. John) ; south to alpine districts of Quebec and northern New England (Gray's Man.) ; swamps (Britton and Brown) ; granitic mountains (Fernald).

COMANDRA LIVIDA.—Cold bogs, and on mountain tops in the south, and on exposed shores in the north (Macoun).


ARENARIA LATERIFLORA.—Sandy soil or swampy ground, Nova Scotia to Vancouver (Macoun) ; thickets and borders of woods (St. John) ; gravelly shores, thickets, etc. (Gray's Man.) ; moist places and on shores (Britton and Brown).

STELLARIA LONGIPES, var. LAETA.—Arctic regions, south to mountain tops (Macoun) ; open places near the shore (St. John) ; sandy or gravelly beaches, Gulf of St. Lawrence, northward and westward (Gray's Man.).


DRABA INCANA.—Labrador to Rocky Mountains (Macoun) ; turfy headlands and hillsides (St. John) ; rocky places (Britton and Brown) ; calcareous cliffs and shores (Fernald).

PARNASSIA PALUSTRIS.—Swamps throughout Canada (Macoun) ; Labrador to Alaska and Wyoming (Gray's Man.) ; wet places (Britton and Brown).

POXTENTILLA MONSPELIENSIS. (P. norvegica).—Cultivated grounds, river bottoms and lake shores (Macoun) ; grassy shores and banks (St. John) ; open soil (Gray's Man.) ; dry soil, often a weed in cultivated ground (Britton and Brown).

POTENTILLA PALUSTRIS.—Marshes and bogs across the continent (Macoun) ; bogs, borders of ponds, etc. (St. John) ; cool bogs (Gray's Man.) ; swamps and peat-bogs (Britton and Brown).

POTENTILLA TRIDENTATA.—Westward through the wooded country to the Rocky Mountains —it seems to thrive equally well on rocks and sand (Macoun).

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CORNUS CANADENSIS.—Cool, sandy woods, from the Atlantic to the Pacific (Macoun) ; in open or wooded places (St. John) ; damp cold woods (Gray's Man.) ; low woods (Britton and Brown).

GENTIANA AMERALLA. (G. acuta).—Labrador to the Rocky Mountains (Macoun) ; rocky, sandy or turfv slopes (St. John) ; barrens, meadows and rocky banks (Gray's Man.) ; moist or wet places (Britton and Brown) ; calcarious cliffs (Fernald).

CALUM LABRADORICUM.—Wet shores and borders of thickets (St. John) ; in moss (Gray's Man.).

ACHILLEA TMILLEFOLIUM, var. NIGRESCENS (A. borealis).—Borders of woods and on grassy banks on mountains, and by streams from the Atlantic to the Pacific (Macoun) ; grassy or rocky shores (St. John) ; wet rocks and mossy slopes (Gray's Man.).

More than half the plants listed in Dr. Kindle's report as maritime (of brackish or littoral habitat) are, then, definitely inland species. These plants rarely seen west of the Narrows, include several arctic-alpine species. Their relatively greater abundance toward the outer coast is unquestionably due to the bleaker conditions there, not to the salinity. The discussion thus far makes it clear, then, that Dr. Kindle's conclusion, that certain plants do not extend in Hamilton Inlet west of the Narrows because they are “ salt-loving plants ” is wholly fallacious.


It should not be concluded, simply because Dr. Kindle's report erroneously records so many inland plants as maritime, that there are no true maritime plants in Hamilton Inlet. The usual maritime flowering plants of that latitude are all there—twenty-five species collected either by Dr. Kindle's party or by the Bowdoin College Expedition of Professor Leslie A. Lee, Mr. Austin Carey, and others in 1891.1 Some of these species, however, are also found in favourable areas in the interior of the continent and may be omitted from the discussion, as not conclusive evidence of maritime conditions ; but others are absolutely unknown in north-eastern America away from the sea-margin. These include seven that extend to or nearly to the head of Lake Melville, which are enumerated below, with a statement of their distribution in Hamilton Inlet, and of their habitats elsewhere in eastern America as given by the leading botanical authorities.

1. POA EMINENS.—At mouth of Mulligan River (Wetmore, Kindle) ; gravel beaches, turfy shores, and rocky ledges near the sea (St. John) ; essentiellement halophytique (Victorin)2 ; gravelly sea-shore (Gray's Man.) ; beaches and shores (Britton and Brown). See accompanying map of the range of the species in eastern America.

2. IRIS SETOSA, var. CANADENSIS (I. Hookeri).—Outer coast to the east end of Lake Melville ; shores of Mulliock Cove ; Carravalla Bay ; south side of Lake Melville, from Carter Basin to English River ; shores at Sabascachew Bay (Wetmore) ; common where water is strongly saline ; not seen above the Narrows (Kindle)—(note the contradiction of Wetmore's statement) ; peculiar to the sea coast and always within the limit of spray from the sea (Macoun) ; “ along the edges of gravelly beaches and at the crests of the ocean cliffs where the plants are often subjected to baths of salt

1 See FERNALD and SORNBORGER, “ Some Recent Additions to the Labrador Flora,” Ottawa Naturalist, xiii, 89-107 (1899).
2 MARIE-VICTORIN, “ La Flore du Temiscouata ” (1916).

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Distribution of some Maritime Plants on Lake Melville
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spray ” (Collins'1) ; sea beaches and headlands (Gray's Man.) ; rocky, gravelly or turfy shores near the sea (St. John) ; “ get iris est particuleur au bas Saint-Laurent et a la cote de l'atlantique ” (Victorin.). See accompanying map of range.

3. POLYGONUM ISLANDICUM.—Mulligan Point, Lake Melville, July 25, 1891 (Bowdoin College Expedition). A northern sea-beach species, extending south to northern Newfoundland and represented southward by the closely-related and perhaps not specifically separable P. Fowleri and P. allocarpum. See accompanying map of range of the series.

4. STELLARIA CRASSIFOLIA.—Caravalla Bay (Kindle) ; Mulligan Point, Lake Melville, July 20, 1891 (Bowdoin College Expedition), the specimen in the Gray Herbarium ; brackish or springy places (St. John) ; strictly coastal in eastern America, on saline or brackish shores. See accompanying map of range in eastern America.

5. POTENTILLA PACIFICA.—Westerly into the lake as far as Northwest River (Kindle) ; brackish or saline soil (Fernald, Rhodora, xi, 9, where the species was first recognised in eastern America) ; brackish shores (St. John).

6. PLANTAGO OLICANTHOS. (recently recognised2 as a species distinct from P. decipiene).—Recorded under the latter name by Wetmore from shores of Sebascachew Bay ; Mulligan Point, 1891 (Bowdoin College Expedition)—specimen in Gray Herbarium ; salt marshes and saline or brackish shores (Fernald) ; salt marshes (Macoun) ; saline shores (St. John) ; “ Espece exclusivement maritime ” (Victorin). See accompanying map of range of the species.

7. SENECIO PSEUDO-ARNICA.—Westward into Lake Melville as far as Sebaskachu Bay (Kindle) ; gravel beaches along the coast (Macoun) ; saline shores (St. John) ; “ rivages maritime ” (Victorin). See accompanying map of range in eastern America.


It is a very significant point that, although it is asserted that marine algae and invertebrates do not extend up Lake Melville, several species of strictly maritime flowering plants of the outer sea-margin extend to or nearly to the head of the “ Lake,” and that seven of these are so uncompromisingly fastidious that elsewhwere in eastern North America they are confined to the true sea-margin. On the St. Lawrence3 they are abundant on the outer coast, reaching Riviere du Loup (opposite the mouth of the Saguenay), and two of them getting as far as Cap a l'Aigle (or Murray Bay). These facts are displayed in the accompanying map, showing the actual known stations for these strictly maritime flowering plants on the Lower St. Lawrence.
The reputed absence of marine algae and marine invertebrates at the head of Lake Melville has been emphasized. I am not equipped to discuss the invertebrates ; but in case of the marine algae it is important to note that the Kindle report contains no enumeration of them even from the outer shores of Hamilton Inlet where they certainly must abound. In

1 J.F. COLLINS, “ The Distinctive Features of Iris Hookeri,” Rhodora, iv, 179 (1902).
2 See FERNALD, “ The Maritime Plantains of North America,” Rhodora, xxvii, 102 (1925).
3 The records from the lower St. Lawrence are taken from the published reports and the collections of St. Cyr, Macoun, St. John and Victorin, and from my own extensive collections and daily field-notes kept every season of exploration from 1903 to 1925.


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