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No. 932.

DESPATCH FROM THE EARL OF DERBY TO GOVERNOR J. GLOVER.
1



Sir,Downing Street, June 12, 1884.
In my despatch of the 18th December last2 I informed the Officer administering the Government of Newfoundland of the appointment of Mr. Clare Ford, C.B., C.M.G., and Mr. E. B. Pennell as British Commissioners on the Commission to meet in Paris in connection with the Newfoundland Fisheries question.
These gentlemen, representing Her Majesty's Government, and M. Jagerschmidt and Captain Bigrel, acting on behalf of the Government of the French Republic, met in Paris on the 23rd January last, and the labours of the Commission were concluded at a meeting held on the 26th April, when an Arrangement was signed by the Commissioners.
I have now the honour to transmit to you a copy of that Arrangement, together with two inclosures accompanying it, which consist of a statement and Map referred to in Article II.
You will observe that the Arrangement has been entered into subject to the approval of the Governments of Great Britain and France ; and Her Majesty's Government will not intimate their approval until the Colonial Government and Legislature have had an opportunity of studying its provisions, and of considering the great advantages which it affords for a settlement of the long outstanding and difficult question of the fisheries.
Before proceeding to explain the details of the present Arrangement, it may be convenient to recapitulate the provisions of the Treaties bearing upon the question.
They are as follows:—
By Article XIII. of the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, it was agreed that “The island called Newfoundland, with the adjacent islands, shall, from this time forward, belong of right wholly to Britain, and to that end the town and fortress of Placentia, and whatever other places in the said island are in the possession of the French, shall be yielded and given up within seven months from the exchange of the ratifications of this Treaty, or sooner if possible, by the Most Christian King to those who have a commission from the Queen of Great Britain for that purpose. Nor shall the Most Christian King, his heirs and successors, or any of their subjects, at any time hereafter lay claim

1 Reproduced from Comm. Pap., france, No. 1 (1890) Correspondence respecting the Newfoundland Fisheries, 1884-1890.
2 Not printed.

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to any right to the said island and islands, or to any part of it or them. Moreover, it shall not be lawful for the subjects of France to fortify any place in the said Island of Newfoundland, or to erect any buildings there, besides stages made of boards, and huts necessary and usual for drying of fish, or to resort to the said island beyond the time necessary for fishing and drying of fish. But it shall be allowed to the subjects of France to catch fish, and to dry them on land in that part only, and in no other besides that, of the said Island of Newfoundland, which stretches from the place called Cape Bonavista to the northern point of the said island, and from thence running down by the western side, reaches as far as the place called Point Riche. But the island called Cape Breton, as also all others, both in the mouth of the River St. Lawrence and in the gulf of the same name, shall hereafter belong of right to the French, and the Most Christian King shall have all manner of liberty to fortify any place or places there.”1
And by Article V. of the Treaty of Paris, 1763, that “The subjects of France shall have the liberty of fishing and drying, on a part of the coasts of the Island of Newfoundland, such as it is specified in Article XIII. of the Treaty of Utrecht, which Article is renewed and confirmed by the present Treaty (except what relates to the Island of Cape Breton, as well as to the

1 “XIII. Insula, Terra-Nova dicta, unà cum Insulis adjacentibus, Juris Britannici ex nunc in posterum omnino erit ; eumque in finem Placentia Urbs & Fortalitium, & si quæ alia Loca in dictà Insulâ per Gallos possessa sint,per Regem Christianissimum, Commissionem câ in parte à Reginâ Magnœ Britanniœ habentibus, intra septem menses à commutatis hujus Tractatûs Ratihabitionum Tabulis, aut citiús si fieri potest, cedentur & tradentur ; neque aliquid Juris ad dictam Insulam & Insulas ullamve illius aut earundem partem, Rex Christianissimus, Hæredes ejus, & Sucessores, aut Subditi aliqui, ullo de hinc tempore in posterum sibi vindicabunt. Quinetiàm nec Locum aliquem in dictâ Insuâ de Terra-Novâ munire, nec ulla ibidem Ædificia, præter Contabulationes, & Tuguriola, Piscibus siccandis necessaria & consueta construere, neque dictam Insulam, ultra tempus Piscationibus & Piscibus siccandis necessarium, frequentare subditis Gallicis licitum erit. In eâ autém tantummodo, nec ullâ aliâ dicta Insulæ de Terra-Novâ parte, quæ à Loco, Cap Bonavista nuncupato, usque ad extremitatem ejusdem Insulæ septentrionalem protenditur, indeque ad Latus Occidentale recurrendo usque ad Locum, Pointe Riche appellatum, procedit, Subditus Gallicis Piscaturam exercere, & Pisces in Terrâ exsiccare permissum erit. Insula vero, Cap Breton dicta, ut & aliæ quævis, tàm in Ostio Fluvii Sancti Laurentii, quam in Sinu ejusdem nominis sitæ, Gallici Juris in posterum erunt ; ibique Locum aliquem, seu Loca, muniendi facultatem omnimodam habebit Rex Christianissimus.”
“ L'Ile de Terre-Neuve, avec les îles adjacentes, appartiendra, désormais et absolument à la Grande-Bretagne, et à cette fin le Roi Très Chrétien fera remettre à ceux qui se trouveront à ce commis en ce pays là, dans l'espace de sept mois à compter du jour de l'échange des ratifications de ce Traité, ou plutôt si faire se peut, la Ville et le Fort de Plaisance, et autres lieux que les François pourroient encore posséder dans la dite île, sans que de dit Roi Très Chrétien, ses Héritiers et Successeurs, ou quelques-uns de ses sujets puissent désormais prétendre quoique ce soit, et en quelque tems que ce soit, sur la dite île, et les îles adjacentes en tout on en partie. Il ne leur sera pas permis non plus d'y fortifier aucun lieu, ni d'y établir aucune habitation en façon quelconque, si ce n'est des échafauds et cabanes nécessaires et usités pour sécher le poisson, ni aborder dans la dite île dans d'autres tems, que celui qui est propre pour pêcher, et nécessaire pour sécher le poisson.
“Dans la dite île il ne sera pas permis aux dits sujets de la France de pêcher et de sécher le poisson en aucune autre partie, que depuis le lieu appelé Cap de Bonavista, jusqu'à 1'extrémité septentrionale de la dite île, et de là en suivant la partie occidentale, jusqu'au lieu appelé Pointe-Riche. Mais l'île dit Cap Breton et toutes les autres quelconques, situées dans 1'embouchure et dans le Golphe de Saint-Laurent, demeureront à 1'avenir à la France, avec l'entière faculté au Roi Très Chrétien d'y fortifier une ou plusieurs places.”

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other islands and coasts in the mouth and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence) ; and His Britannic Majesty consents to leave to the subjects of the Most Christian King the liberty of fishing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence on condition that the subjects of France do not exercise the said fishery but at the distance of 3 leagues from all the coasts belonging to Great Britain, as well those of the continent as those of the islands situated in the said Gulf of St. Lawrence. And as to what relates to the fishery on the coast of the Island of Cape Breton, out of the said gulf, the subjects of the Most Christian King shall not be permitted to exercise the said fishery but at the distance of 15 leagues from the 10 coast of the Island of Cape Breton ; and the fishery on the coast of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and everywhere else out of the said gulf, shall remain on the foot of former Treaties.”
And by Article VI. of the same Treaty, “The King of Great Britain cedes the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon in full right to His Most Christian Majesty, to serve as a shelter to the French fishermen ; and His said Most Christian Majesty engages not to fortify the said islands ; to erect no buildings upon them but merely for the convenience of the fishery ; and to keep upon them a guard of fifty men only for the police.”
And by Article IV. of the Treaty of Versailles, 1783, that “His Majesty the King of Great Britain is maintained in his right to the Island of Newfoundland and to the adjacent islands, as the whole were assured to him by the XIIIth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht, excepting the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, which are ceded in full right by the present Treaty to His Most Christian Majesty”
And by Article V. of the said last-named Treaty, that “His Majesty the Most Christian King, in order to prevent the quarrels which have hitherto arisen between the two nations of England and France, consents to renounce the right of fishing, which belongs to him in virtue of the aforesaid Article of the Treaty of Utrecht, from Cape Bonavista to Cape St. John, situated on the eastern coast of Newfoundland, in 50° north latitude ; and His Majesty the King of Great Britain consents, on his part, that the fishery assigned to the subjects of His Most Christian Majesty, beginning at the said Cape St. John, passing to the north and descending by the western coast of the Island of Newfoundland, shall extend to the place called Cape Ray, situated in 47° 50' latitude. The French fishermen shall enjoy the fishery which is assigned to them by the Treaty of Utrecht.”
And by Article VI. of the said last-named Treaty, that, “With regard to the fishery in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the French shall continue to exercise it conformably to the Vth Article of the Treaty of Paris.”
And by a Declaration of His Britannic Majesty, dated the 3rd day of September, 1783,1 it was declared that “The King, having entirely agreed

1 “Le Roi étant entièrement d'accord avec Sa Majesté Très Chrétienne sur les Articles du Traité Définitif, cherchera tous les moyens qui pourront non seulement en assurer l'exécution, avec la bonne foi et la ponctualité qui lui sont connues, mais de plus donnera, de son côté, toute l'efficace possible aux principes qui empêcheront jusqu'au moindre germe de dispute à l'avenir.
“A cette fin, et pour que les pêcheurs des deux nations ne fassent point naître des querelles

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with His Most Christian Majesty upon the Articles of the Definitive Treaty, will seek every means which shall not only insure the execution thereof, with his accustomed good faith and punctuality, but will besides give, on his part, all possible efficacy to the principles which shall prevent even the least foundation of dispute for the future.
“To this end, and in order that the fishermen of the two nations may not give cause for daily quarrels, His Britannic Majesty will take the most positive measures for preventing his subjects from interrupting in any manner, by their competition, the fishery of the French during the temporary exercise of it which is granted to them upon the coasts of the Island of Newfoundland ; and he will, for this purpose, cause the fixed settlements which shall be formed there to be removed. His Britannic Majesty will give orders that the French fishermen be not incommoded in cutting the wood necessary for the repair of their scaffolds, huts, and fishing-vessels.
“The XIIIth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht, and the method of carrying on the fishery, which has at all times been acknowledged, shall be the plan upon which the fishery shall be carried on there ; it shall not be deviated from by either party ; the French fishermen building only their scaffolds, confining themselves to the repair of their fishing-vessels, and not wintering there ; the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, on their part, not molesting in any manner the French fishermen during their fishing nor injuring their scaffolds during their absence.
“The King of Great Britain, in ceding the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon to France, regards them as ceded for the purpose of serving as a real shelter to the French fishermen, and in full confidence that these possessions will not become an object of jealousy between the two nations, and that the fishery between the said islands, and that of Newfoundland shall be limited to the middle of the channel.”
And by a Counter-Declaration of His Most Gracious Majesty the King



journalières, Sa Majesté Britannique prendra les mesures les plus positives pour prévenir que ses sujets ne troublent, en aucune manière, par leur concurrence, la pêche des François, pendant l'exercice temporaire qui leur est accordé, sur les côtes de l'île de Terre-Neuve ; et elle fera retirer, à cet effet, les établissements sédentaires qui y seront formés. Sa Majesté Britannique donnera des ordres pour que les pêcheurs François ne soient pas gênés dans la coupe de bois nécessaire pour la réparation de leurs échaffaudages, cabanes, et bâtimens de pêche.
“L'Article XIII du Traité d'Utrecht, et la méthode de faire la pêche qui a été de tout tems reconnue, sera le modèle sur lequel la pêche s'y fera. On n'y contreviendra pas, ni d'une part ni de l'autre ; les pêcheurs François ne bâtissant rien que leurs échaffaudages, se bornant à réparer leurs bâtimens de pêche, et n'y hivernant point ; les sujets de Sa Majesté Britannique, de leur part, ne molestant aucunement les pêcheurs François durant leurs pêches, ni ne dérangeant leurs échaffaudages durant leur absence.
“Le Roi de la Grande-Bretagne, en cédant les Iles de Saint-Pierre et de Miquelon à la France, les regarde comme cédées à fin de servir réellement d'abri aux pêcheurs François, et dans la confiance entière que ces possessions ne deviendront point un objet de jalousie entre les deux nations ; et que la pêche entre les dites îles, et celle de Terre-Neuve, sera bornée à mi-canal.”

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of France, dated the 3rd day of September, 1783,1 it was declared that “The principles which have guided the King in the whole course of the negotiations which preceded the re-establishment of peace must have convinced the King of Great Britain that His Majesty has had no other design than to render it solid and lasting, by preventing as much as possible, in the four quarters of the world, every subject of discussion and quarrel.
“The King of Great Britain undoubtedly places too much confidence in the uprightness of His Majesty's intentions not to rely upon his constant attention to prevent the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon from becoming an object of jealousy between the two nations.
“As to the fishery on the coasts of Newfoundland, which has been the object of the new arrangements settled by the two Sovereigns upon this matter, it is sufficiently ascertained by the Vth Article of the Treaty of Peace signed this day, and by the Declaration likewise delivered to-day by His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary ; and His Majesty declares that he is fully satisfied on this head.
“In regard to the fishery between the Island of Newfoundland and those of St. Pierre and Miquelon, it is not to be carried on by either party but to the middle of the channel ; and His Majesty will give the most positive orders that the French fishermen shall not go beyond this line. His Majesty is firmly persuaded that the King of Great Britain will give like orders to the English fishermen.”
And by further Treaties between the said Great Contracting Parties, viz., by Article VIII. of the Treaty of Paris, 1814, it was agreed that “His Britannic Majesty, stipulating for himself and his allies, engages to restore to His Most Christian Majesty, within the term which shall be hereafter fixed, the Colonies, fisheries, factories, and establishments of every kind which were possessed by France on the 1st January, 1792, in the seas, on the Continents of America, Africa, and Asia, with exception, however, of the Islands of Tobago and St. Lucia, and the Isle of France and its dependencies, especially Rodrigues and the Seychelles, which several Colonies and possessions His Most Christian

1 “Les principes qui ont dirigé le Roi, dans tout le tours des négociations qui ont précéde le rétablissement de la Paix, ont dû convaincre le Roi de la Grande-Bretagne, que Sa Majesté n'a eu d'autre but que de la rendre solide et durable, en prévenant, autant qu'il est possible, dans les quatre parties du monde, tout sujet de discussion et de querelle. Le Roi de la Grande-Bretagne met indubitablement trop de confiance dans la droiture des intentions de Sa Majesté, pour ne point se reposer sur l'attention constante qu'elle aura d'empêcher que les Iles St. Pierre et Miquelon ne deviennent un objet de jalousie entre les deux nations.
“Quant à la pêche sur les côtes de Terre-Neuve, qui a été l'objet des nouveaux arrangements dont les deux Souverains sont convenus sur cette matière, elle est suffisamment exprimée par l'Article V du Traité de Paix signé ce jourd'hui, et par la Déclaration remise également aujourd'hui par l'Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plénipotentiaire de Sa Majesté Britannique ; et Sa Majesté déclare qu'elle est pleinement satisfaite à cet égard.
“Pour ce qui est de la pêche entre l'lle de Terre-Neuve et celles de St. Pierre et Miquelon, elle ne pourra se faire, de part et d'autre, que jusqu'à mi-canal, et Sa Majesté donnera les ordres le plus précis, pour que les pecheurs François n'outrepassent point cette ligne. Sa Majesté est dans la ferme confiance que le Roi de la Grande-Bretagne donnera de pareils ordres aux pêcheurs Anglois.”

[1927lab]



 

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