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No. 912.

EXTRACT FROM VALIN'S NOUVEAU COMMENTAIRE [1766] SUR L'ORDANNANCE DE LA MARINE DU MOIS D'AOÛT 1681

VOL. II. 691.




LIV. V TIT 1. ARTICLE I.

DECLARONS LA PÊCHE DE LA MER LIBRE ET COMMUNE À TOUS NOS SUJETS, AUXQUELS NOUS PERMETTONS DE LA FAIRE, TANT EN PLEINE MER QUE SUR LES GREVES AVEC LES FILETS ET ENGINS PERMIS PAR LA PRÉSENTE ORDONNANCE.

La permission de faire la pêche, tant sur les groves qu'en pleine mer, suppose nécessairement dans celui qui la donne, le pouvoir de la defendre, en vertu de son droit de propriété et domanial sur les memes greves et sur la mer qui vient y briser ses flots.
Il est de principe en effet, comme on 1'a montré sur l'article 26 du titre des naufrages, que ce qui n'est à personne en particulier, mais appartient à la République, c'est-à-dire à la communauté d' un Etat souverain, est dévolu de plein droit, au Prince, dans un Etat monarchique comme étant le chef de la nation, et comme réunissant à ce titre, en sa personne, tous les droits communs à la nation, du nombre desquels est le domaine de la mer et de toutes les côtes et greves qui en sont baignées. Omne imperium in Caesarem translatum est omnisque populi et plebis potestas in principium translata. Instil. lib 1° de jure naturali etc Tit 2 sed et quod.
Le Souverain pourroit donc s'en reserver l'usage et le droit d'y pêcher, ou le céder à qui bon le sembleroit, par preference à tous autres. Mais nos Rois toujours plus attentifs au bien général de leurs sujets qu'à leurs intérêts propres ; ou, si l'on veut, parce que le bien général des sujets fournit toujours au Souverain un ample dédommagement du sacrifice qu'il leur fait de ses droits particuliers : nos Rois, dis-je, se sont, dans tous les temps, fait une loi de laisser libre et commune à leurs sujets la peche de la mer ; et cette loi à été irrévocablement confirmée par le present article.
De sorte que tout ce qui peut goner cette liberté de la pêche soit sur les greves, soit en mer, est défavorable de sa nature, et ne doit par consequent être toléré qu'autant que ceux qui prétendent s'attribuer un droit de pêche exclusif, sont fondés en titres valables, ou en possession suffisante pour s'y faire maintenir.
Cependant en même temps que nos Rois ont dérogé à leur droit de souveraineté en cette partie, en laissant à leurs sujets la liberté de la pêche

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en mer et sur les greves, sans en exiger aucun tribut, ils se sont réservés le droit de veiller à la police de cette pêche, et par là de régler la manière de la faire, de prescrire les temps et les lieux où elle pourroit être pratiquée ou interdite ; enfin de déterminer la forme et la maille des filets et engins qui pourront y être employés.


Excepté ces pares et pêcheries, il est permis à quiconque de pêcher sur les greves de la mer, soit du poisson, soit du coquillage. . . . .
Pour ce qui concerne la pêche dans les étangs et les rivières, au-dessus de l'endroit où le flux et reflux de la mer cesse de se faire sentir, il faut voir l'Ordonnance des Eaux et Forêts.




No. 913.N

EXTRACT FROM HALE DE JURE MARIS CAP. IV.



In Hargrave's Tracts, pp. 10-14.

Concerning the King's interest in salt waters, the sea and its arms, and the soil thereof : and first, of the right of fishing there.

Thus much concerning fresh waters or inland rivers, which though they empty themselves mediately into the sea are not called arms of the sea, either in respect of the distance or smallness of them.
We come now to consider the sea and its arms : and first, concerning the sea itself.
The sea is either that which lies within the body of a County or without.
That arm or branch of the sea which lies within the fauces terrae, where a man may reasonable discerne between shore and shore, is or at least may be within the body of a County and therefore within the jurisdiction of the Sheriff or Coroner. 8.E.2. Corone 399.
The part of the sea which lies not within the body of a County, is called the main sea or ocean.
The narrow sea, adjoining to the coast of England, is part of the wast and demesnes and dominions of the King of England, whether it lie within the body of any County or not.

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This is abundantly proved by that learned treatise of master Selden called Mare Clausum ; and therefore I shall say nothing therein, but refer the reader thither.
In this sea the King of England hath a double right, viz a right of jurisdiction which he ordinarily exerciseth by his Admiral and a right of properiety or ownership. The latter is that which I shall meddle with.
The King's right of propriety or ownership in the sea and soil thereof is evidenced principally in these things that follow.

1st.The right of fishing in this sea and the creeks and arms thereof is originally lodged in the Crown, as the right of depasturing is originally lodged in the owner of the wast whereof he is Lord, or as the right of fishing belongs to him that is the owner of a private or inland river. I shall not give many instances of this because they are abundantly done to my hand in the book I formerly cited.
Pat. 23. E.1. m. 6. The King grants liberty to the Hollanders to fish in mari nostro prope Jernemuth.
Rot. Parliamenti 3 H. 5 pars 1 n 33. The King by proclamation made a general inhibition of fishing upon the coasts of Ireland to the prejudice of the English. Desired to be recalled, but was not.
Rot. Parl. 8. H. 5 n 6.
Item pry le commons, que come nostre seigneur le roy et ses nobles progeniteurs de tout temps ont estre seigneurs de le mere, et ore per le grace de dieu est si venus que nostre seigneur le roy est seigneur de costs de ambe parties de le mere d'ordeiner sur tous les estrangers passants permy le dit mere tiel imposural oeps nostre seigneur le roy apprendre que a luy semble reasonable pur le salve gard del dit mere.
Responsio, “Le Roy s'avisera.”
But though the King is the owner of this great wast and as a consequent of his propriety hath the primary right of fishing in the sea and the creekes and armes thereof ; yet the common people of England have regularly a liberty of fishing in the sea or creekes or armes thereof, as a publick common of piscary, and may not without injury to their right be restrained of it unless in such places creeks or navigable rivers, where either the King or some particular subject hath gained a propriety exclusive of that common liberty.
Mich. 19. E. 3.B. R. Rot. 127 Lincoln. The commonalty of Grimsby impleaded the fishermen of Ole, which is within five miles of Grimsby, for lading and unlading their fish and other victuals at Ole ;
Custuma non soluta, quae est debita dictae villae Grimsby juxta cartas regis contra prohibitionem regis.

The Defendants plead,
Quod ipsi sunt libeni tenentes in hamletto de Thrusco, qui est infra praecinctum villae de Ole, et quod ipsi tanquam piscatores juxta costeram maris a tempore quo etc usi sunt piscari cum retibus et battellis suis, et pisces captos ad terram apud Thrusco et alibi in patria ibidem venditioni exponere, absque hoc quod

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blada victualia bona aut mercimonia carcarunt aut discarcarumt aut venditioni exposuerunt ideo veniat jurata.
Vide statutum
2 E. 6. cap 6 5 El. cap. 5. Bracton lib. 2. cap. 12. Jus piscandi omnibus commune in portu et in fluminibus. It must be taken to be rivers that are arms of the sea, and primo intuitu ; for de facto there doth fall out in many ports and arms of the sea an exclusion of public fishing by prescription or custom.

IId.The next evidence of the King's right and propriety in the sea and the arms thereof is his right of propriety to
The shore ; and
The maritima incrementa.

(1) The shore is that ground that is between the ordinary high-water and low-water mark. This doth prima facie and of common right belong to the King, both in the shore of the sea and the shore of the arms of the sea.

And herein there will be these things examinable.
1st.What shall be said the shore, or littus maris.
2nd.What shall be said an arm or creek of the sea.
3rd.What evidence there is of the King's propriety thereof.

1. For the first of these it is certain that that which the sea overflows, either at high-spring tides or at extraordinary tides, comes not as to this purpose under the denomination of littus maris ; and consequently the King's title is not of that large extent, but only to land that is usually overflowed at ordinary tides. And so I have known it ruled in the Exchequer-chamber in the case of Vanhaesdanke on prosecution by information against Mr. Whiting about 12 Car 1. for lands in* in the County of Norfolk, and accordingly ruled 15 Car. B.R. Sir Edward Heron's Case and Pasch. 17 Car. 2. in Scaccario upon evidence between the Lady Wansford's Lessee and Stephens, in an ejectione firmae for the town of Cowes in the Isle of Wight. That therefore I call the shore, that is between the common high-water and low-water mark and no more.

2. For the second, that is called an arm of the sea where the sea flows and reflows, and so far only as the sea so flows and reflows ; so that the river of Thames above Kingston and the river of Severn above Tewkesbury etc. though there they are publick rivers, yet are not arms of the sea. But it seems that, although the water be fresh at high water, yet the denomination of an arm of the sea continues, if it flow and reflow as in Thames above the Bridge.
22 Ass. 93. Nota que chescum ew que flow et relow est appel bras de mere cy tantavint come il flow.

3. For the third it is admitted that de jure communi between the highwater and low-water mark doth prima facie belong to the King, 5 Rep. 107.

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Constable's Case. Dy. 326. Although it is true that such shore may and commonly is parcel of the manor adjacent, and so may be belonging to a subject, as shall be shewn, yet prima facie it is the King's.
And as the shore of the sea doth prima facie belong to the King, viz between the ordinary high-water and low-water mark, so the shore of an arm of the sea between the high-water and low-water mark belongs prima facie to the King, though it may also belong to a subject, as shall be shewn in the next chapter.
In the case between the town of Newcastle and the prior of Tinmouth 20 E.1. which is afterwards, in the Second Part, chapter the 6th, more fully recited ; one of the charges against the prior is that he had built houses at Sheles upon the river of Tyne between the high-water and low-water mark. The prior pleads that it was built on his own soil.
Ubi dominus rex nullum habet solum, neque liberum tenementum, eo quod solum dictae domus et liberum tenementum extendit se usque ad filum aquae Tyne ultra terram suam siccam, et inter quod quidem filum aquae et terram praedictam domus praedicta habet piscariam suam liberam in longitudinem terrae ejusdem in eadem aqua.
The King's Attorney replied,
Quod qualescumque mansiunculae ibidem fuerunt temporibus praedecessorum prioris, idem prior, qui nunc est, tempore suo fieri fecit ibidem 26 domus super solum quod domino regi esse debet, eo quod fluxu et inundatione maris comprehenditur.

Afterwards judgment was given against the prior, but not in express termes for the soil, but implicitly. See the judgment afterwards in the Second Part, 6th chapter.
And consonant to this there was a decree Paschae 8 Car 1. in the Exchequer, entered in the book of Orders of that Term, Fol. 66 whereby it was decreed that the soil and ground lying between Wapping Wall and the river of Thames is parcel of the Port of London ; and therefore and for that the same lies between the high-water and low-water mark of the river of Thames, all the houses built between the Hermitage-wharfe unto Dickshore eastward and between the old wall of Wapping-Wall on the north and the river of Thames on the south, are decreed to the King ; and the same were accordingly by commission seized into the King's hands.
The title of the bill or information was laid, viz. 1st That the river of Thames flowed and reflowed. 2nd That consequently it was an arm of the sea. 3rd That it was the King's river. 4th That it was the King's port.—And upon all these it was concluded that the land between the high-water and low-water mark was the King's land, and accordingly decreed.
And this shall suffice for the King's right in the shore of the sea, or rivers that are arms of the sea, viz the land lying between the high-water and the low-water mark at ordinary tides.

[1927lab]


 

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