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No. 229.

(Enclosure in No. 227.)

HEADS OF ENQUIRY

RESPECTING THE STATE OF THAT PART OF THE COAST OF TERRA       LABRADOR, COMPRIZ'D WITHIN THE COMMISSION TO THE       GOVERNOR OF NEWFOUNDLAND, WITH GOVERNOR PALLISER'S       ANSWERS.

B. T. NFDLD.   Vol. 18.   T. 80.


QUERY'S.
     1st   What is the Extent of the Coast of Terra Labrador under Your Government.—
ANSWERS.
     From the River St John, which is the Western Boundary, to Cape Charles which is the Eastern Extremity is 150 Leags & from Cape Charles to the Entrance of Hudsons Streights is 160 Leags more, making together an extent of 310 Leagues of Sea Coast.—
     2d   What is the Nature of the Soil and Climate; what are its natural or improv'd Productions, & are any, or if any, what Parts thereof Adapted to Inhabitancy—














     3d  What are Ye Principal Rivers, Bays or Harbours; their Situation & Capacity; and what Convenience do they afford either for Navigation or Fishery.
     The Climate is much the same as in Newfoundland, is too severe to Admit of any Cultivation or Improvements, the summer being so Short, that nothing except a little Garden Stuff can ever be brought to Maturity; it is not capable of any Produce to Subsist European Inhabitants, therefore no part of it is adapted to Inhabitancy, its natural Produce is nothing but Woods, there is great tracts without any Wood, being nothing but bare Rock, or covered only with a deep Moss.—


     The Coast not being yet Survey'd & but little frequented, I cant be particular in my Answer to this Article, but in general can say, that the whole Coast abounds with Excellent Harbours, Infinate (sic) Numbers of Islands and all sorts of Conveniency's for Fishery's.—

p. 957

QUERY'S.
     4th   What is the Nature and Extent of Ye different Fishery's carry'd on upon that Coast whether of Whales, Seals, Sea Cows, or any other Species.


























     5th  What Establishments have been made for these Fishery's, at what Places and under what Authority.























     6th  Are any Posts Occupy'd or possess'd under exclusive Grants or leases from the Governor of
ANSWERS.
     The Fishery's that may be carry'd on upon this Coast is for Cod, Whale, Seal, and Salmon, each are in great Abundance and of the best Kinds—that for Cod, was carry'd on to a considerable Amount by French Ship Fishers from Old France—that for Whales within the Gulph, the French reap'd little or no Advantage from, being a Monopoly to certain People who Paid an Acknowledgement to the Govr of Quebec for a Licence, so that I am inform'd never above two or three Ships were Employ'd on it. The Seal & Salmon Fishery and the Indian Trade, was in like manner carry'd on under Exclusive Grants from the Governor of Quebec, the Whole Coast as far as Cape Charles was divided into Districts or Posts, and Granted in Monopoly as aforementioned, the Exact Limits of each or any of those Posts I have not been able to Learn.—

     Governor Murray of Quebec has (as I am Inform'd) taken upon him, in imitation of the Maxims of the French Government, to make exclusive Grants of that Coast from St Johns River as far as Cape Charles, therefore no British Adventurers have hitherto Offer'd to go there, the Conditions or tenor of those Grants I am a Stranger to, other than by Reports.—for the reasons set forth in my Letter to the Board of the 30th Octr and in my Answer to the Case of Capt Philibot which their Lordships have now before them; I hope their Lordships will Approve of my having Annulled those Grants, and warned those People settl'd there under them, to quit that Coast till His Majesty's Pleasure shall be known thereon.—

     What is said in the foregoing Article is in part an Answer to this, I know of no titles deriv'd from the Crown of France to Monopolies in Fishery and Trade that can be

p. 958


QUERY'S.
Quebec, or claimed or held under any Title derived from the Crown of France while that Country was in her Possession, if so, by whom, under what conditions,/and for what Term? and if any Rents are reserved what is the Amount? to whom payable, and whether any, or what part thereof has been Paid, and to whom? and what Remains due.
































     7th  What is the extent of each Post so held or Claimed as well along the Coast, as within the Land, the Number of Men and Vessels employed at each, and the Quantity of Fish or Oil anually produced therefrom? and what is the peculiar Fishery carry'd on in each.—/
ANSWERS.
binding to the English Government, such English settlers from Quebec as have Adress'd themselves to me, since I warned them to quit the Coast, Pleaded Governor Murray's Grants; on explaining to them/that such Grants are Injurious to the rest of the King's Subjects, were illegal, even if that Coast had been within his Government; they then said they Claimed under the common Rights of British Subjects, to take and hold Possession of any place not before Possessed by any other Person, on telling them my Opinion, that, that could not be allowed, without the King's Permission, which in that case would be signified to me, as all the Land is in the Crown, and rejecting some overtures to be concerned wth them if permitted under my Authority to hold those possessions, they seemed then to intend to try to derive a right under some Seigniorys, Granted by the Crown of France, to great Officers and others in the French Service, this is what I don't understand, but it should seem Mr Murray (who had in his Custody the Archives and Records of the Country) thought such Pretentions of no Weight, when he made those Grants by his own Authority, the several Particulars in the latter part of this Query, I am not able to make any Answer to.—

     I have never been able to Learn with certainty the extent of each or any of the Posts Granted as afore-mentioned by Govr Murray, but have understood they were from 30 to 40 Leags Sea Coast Each; Inclos'd is a Copy of the Exactest State of the Labradore Fishery's that I have been able to get, with a Letter that inclos'd it, from one of those settlers from Quebec, from this Account & Letter, I extracted what I mentioned relating to Labradore; in my Report to the Board on the Fishery's in General the 18th Decr last.—/

p. 959

QUERY'S.
    8th  What is the Nature & Disposition of the several Nations on Tribes of Savages Inhabiting the Country.—



























































    9th  What Traffick on Comerce is on may be Establish'd on carried on with those Savages; and if any
ANSWERS.
    The Savage Inhabitants on this Coast may be distinguished into two distinct Nations on People.
    (lst) All those within the Streights of Bell Isle Inhabit inland, far from the Sea Coast, and are called the Mountainere Savages.
     (2d) All those inhabiting without the Streights of Bell Isle, and to the Northward towards Hudsons Streights, are called by the Europeans Esquimeauxs, but they call themselves Carolits, we have yet but a very Imperfect knowledge about those People, I must therefore refer their Lordships to the Narrative on Journal delivered them by the Missionaries of the Unitas Fratrum.
     The Savages called Mountaineres are represented as a Pucelanemous, harmless People, adicted much to stealing & drinking to excess, both which they have been taught by the Examples of Europeans, of their Numbers on Places of abode very little is kown, they come down to the Coast in greater on less Numbers, according to the treatment they have met with the Preceeding Year.—
     The Carolits on Esquemeauxs, are also great thieves, but will taste no Liquor, are a more subtle enterprizing People, yet exceeding timerous & Jealous of ye Europeans, both which may with great Justice be atributed to the Barbarous treatment they continually experience from our People, notwithstanding which, I am satisfied they may be easily Civilized, which would be of great advantage to the Trade of His Majs Subjects, and for this End I most Humbly recommend to their Lordships favour, the Brethren of the Unitas Fratrum, for such Grants or Encouragements as may not be Inconsistent with the nights & Interests of the nest of the King's Subjects, respecting Fishery and Trade.

Tho' our Accounts are yet very Imperfect on this Head, I am satisfy'd a very Advantageous Traffic may be carry'd on (under proper Regulations) with Ye Mountanier

p. 960

QUERY'S.
such Traffic is Establish'd or carry'd on, at what Places, and under what Regulations?
ANSWERS.
Savages for Furs, but this will depend on Keeping at the beginning all disorderly People off the Coast.—What little Trade has hitherto been carry'd on with them, has been by the settlers from Quebec, and the New England Whale Fishers, who by their Barbarities and Irregularities, will keep that Coast in a constant State of War, and render it inaccessible to any of the King's Subjects, I can partly answer for the Conduct of regular English Ship Fishers, but none else.
     This together with what I have before said in my Letters to the Board of the 30th Octr, and 18 Decr last, is all the lights at Present in my Power to furnish their Lordships in these matters.—
HUGH PALLISSER.    
19th March 1766  
Endorsed:
NEWFOUNDLAND.

      Heads of Enquiry respecting the state of that part of the Coast of Terra Labrador comprized within the commission to the Govr of Newfoundland, with Govr Pallisser's Answers.

In the Govrs Letter of 19 March 1766.  Read March 21, 1766.
T. 80.

[1927lab]

 

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