The Labrador Boundary

Privy Council Documents

Volume III

Diary of the House Congn, in Nain.
p. 110.

Nain, Labrador.
pp. 404-405.

Account of bn. John Schneider Lister and Step. Jensen's voyage from Nain

to Arvertok and back again from the 2d to the 22d of July.

Diary of Nain.
p. 473.

The Diary of the Voyage of the Brn and Srs. Leibish and Becks from Nain to Okak.
pp. 540-41.

The Diary of Okak.
p. 597.

Diary of the House Congnat Nain.
p. 630.

Diary of the House Congn, in Okak.
pp. 661-662.


p. 1340

No. 453.


March, 1773.

      27th  Millik who is a very serious Man and much respected in his Nation began to speak with the other Esquimeaux and said—This is what we have often heard that Jesus has bought all men with his Blood. After the Esquimeaux had spoken with one another on this matter Millik asked, are the Adlat, that is the Land Indians also bought with his Blood? He was told, yes certainly, and we have among them very many who are our Brn and Srs., we have also a great number among the black people whose hearts have been cleans'd by the Blood of Jesus from their Sins. Millik was asked if he had seen any of those people. Yes, said He, I saw one on board a Ship in the South, then he lifted up three Singers, there are so many Nations bought with his Blood, first the Adlat or Land Indians, secondly the Blacks, thirdly the Kaxalit.

August 2nd, 1777.

      Two boats came from Arvertok. This evening br. Lister went into the first tent and asked if they had heard that some bn. had been to Arvertok to buy some land. The answer was yes, but the man Panniak added it was his land and he would live no where else. Being asked if he was not willing we should come there too, he said, O yes, he was not displeased with us, but they, he and his wife, were to be paid for the land extraordinary and if this was done he was willing we should go and live there. The 3d the purchase of the land was fully made by the 3 bn. Schneider, Lister, and Jensen, and one family after the other was called into our meeting room, the usual payment made them and the men signed the deed of conveyance written in the Esquimeaux language, with the first letter of their names, their hands being guided for the purpose.

July 1777.

      The 7th . . . we reached Arvertok in good time safe and well . . . We however called all the men present to our tent, and told them the reason of our coming hither, viz. to buy a piece of land to settle upon with

p. 1341

them, that thus they might become acquainted with their creator and Redeemer. Being asked if they were willing to this? they all answer'd, O yes. We then told them that to morrow we would speak to them farther about it . . . The 8th in the morning we again called all the people together and br. Schneider delivered a testimony of our Saviour and his love. Then he repeated the reason of our coming to their land, which was chiefly out of love from them and he assured them, if they would be converted to our Saviour he would enlighten their hearts and make them very happy. He further told them what a district of land we desired, viz. from the North corner of Arvertok as far as Tikkerarsuk to the South, on which district none should live but we bn. and how great would be our joy, if many of them would believe in our Saviour, come and live with us . . . Then we called the men alone into our tent whose names were written down to witness that they sold us the land and received the payment for it. Then the wives and children received the like with which they were all satisfied.
      Afterwards we went off in our boat and placed a boundary stone at the hook of Arvertock Land in the name of our Lord and Saviour, agreeable to the liberty given us in consequence of our grant.

August, 1778.

      The 25th Pattiguks boat and family come hither, they said, that they heard the firing of canon several times, and therefore we concluded that the ship must be near us. But as the ship did not arrive, they reported that it must, be country Indians, and were much affrighted. These country Indians are almost the only people of whom the Esqx are afraid, and yet the most of the reports about them have hitherto been without foundation.

August, 1778.

      29th.   Today many Esquimaux came running to us from Nariasiourck all in a fright, and said that they had seen a great smoke upon the main land behind Siouak, and that in all probability land or Canada Indians were there, and would murder their people. One said. My son is there upon the rein deer hunt, another his Br. and so on, and they were very much troubled. They beged us to help them, and wanted us to sail there with our boat directly. We told them we could not believe that Canada Indians were so near, but it was most likely that their own people had made a fire and left it, and that had caught some large wood on fire, which was the smoke they saw. Our Brn and all the Okak people went with them upon an eminence to see this smoke. We adhered to our opinion that it was a wood caught on fire.

July 13th, 1778.

      The 3 Brn Neiser, Turner & Branigen went with a couple of Esquimaux to Ikkerasak to survey that Country and then behind Siarak upon the Continent to see if we could get any fresh Meat, and our dear Heavenly Father vouchsafed us a Reindeer.

p. 1342

January 20th, 1779.

      Tuglu-vina related that some esqx hunting up in the country saw some land-Indians; they came so near as to call to one another, but could not understand each other, the indians had guns, and as much as the esqx could understand they thought they wanted to trade with them—they behaved friendly, & had good cloathing of deer-skins.

October 1778.

      On the 2d a Boat full of People came to Kivallek; they had had this year much success in Hunting. They related a particular circumstance which the oldest People here had never heard the like of. Some of the Kivallek People were hunting Rein Deer far within Land. All at once they perceived a Land Indian busied in skinning a Rein Deer he had killed. The Kivallek peopled were frighted at the sight of this Man, but he very courageously waved his cap over his Head & cried out. Our People supposed he called to them. They went nearer, yet not without fear on both sides, but he did not let them come close to him, but made a sign to them to stand still. Then he cut off a piece of the Leg of the Rein Deer, broke the Bones, & laid it on a Stone before them &, made them a sign to eat it, which they did. They talked much to each other, but could not make themselves understood. Our Esquimaux nam'd to him the several Europeans who live among them especially Johannes Ingoak (Br. Haren) & Ludwig (Beck). The Indian pointed to his left side, struck it with his right hand, speaking much & earnestly at the same time. The Esquimaux judged from that sign, that he was talking of the wound in our Savrs. side, & that he was one of our Brn. The general opinion of the Esquimaux concerning the Land Indians is, that they are very bad People, whose design is to root out the Esquimaux.
      The Indian kept his Gun constantly in his Hand & his eye fixed on every movement of the Esquimaux. He was a lusty Man; his brown hair hung in two twisted curls over his shoulders & breast, his face was white & ruddyish; his coat was of white cloth, made in the European way, he had blue Breeches, European Stockings & shoes, & wore on his head a grey & white strip'd knit cap. In order to spew his civility still more; he gave our Esquimaux the two fore legs of the Rein Deer, & with a little Hatchet he had broken the Bones for them, that they might easily get at the marrow; at last the* separated peaceably. The Indians took his Rein Deer & went towards his comrades, whom our Indians did not see, but the firing of whose Guns they could hear. This is certainly the very first time that the Esquimaux & Land Indians met one another peaceable. Our Esquimaux suppose that if War was every where else, here at least there would be Peace.



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