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ecclesiastical Benefice, or who may be licensed to exercise any Power or Authority in respect thereto, do take and subscribe before you in Council, or before such Person as you shall appoint to administer the same, the Oath required to be taken and subscribed by the aforesaid Act of Parliament passed in the fourteenth year of Our Reign, intituled, "An Act for making more effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in North America."
    Seventhly, That all Incumbents of Parishes shall hold their respective Benefices during good behaviour, subject however, in cases of any Conviction for Criminal Offences, or upon due proof of seditious Attempts to disturb the Peace and Tranquility of Our Government, to be deprived, or suspended by you with the Advice and Consent of a Majority of Our said Council.
    Eighthly, That such Ecclesiasticks, as may think fit to enter into the holy state of Matrimony, shall be released from all Penalties, to which they may have been subjected in such Cases by any Authority of the See of Rome.
    Ninthly, That freedom of Burial of the Dead in Churches and Church yards be allowed indiscriminately to every Christian Persuasion.
    Tenthly, That the Royal Family be prayed for in all Churches and Places of Holy Worship, in such manner and form, as are used in this Kingdom; and that Our Arms and Insignia be put up not only in all such Churches and Places of holy Worship, but also in all Courts of Justice; and that the Arms of France be taken down in every such Church or Court, where they may at present remain.
    Eleventhly, That the Society of Romish Priests, called the Seminaries of Quebec and Montreal, shall continue to possess and occupy their Houses of Residence, and all other Houses and Lands, to which they were lawfully intitled on the 13th of September 1759; and it shall be lawful for those Societies to fill up Vacancies, and admit new Members according to the Rules of their Foundations, and to educate Youth, in order to qualify them for the Service of Parochial Cures; as they shall become vacant. It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure, that not only these Seminaries, but all other Religious Communities, so long as the same shall continue, be subject to visitation by You Our Governor, or such other Person or Persons, as you shall appoint for that purpose, and also subject to such Rules and Regulations, as you shall, with the Advice and Consent of Our Council, think fit to establish and appoint.
    Twelfthly, it is also Our Will and Pleasure, that all other Religious Seminaries and Communities (that of the Jesuits only excepted) do for the present and until We can be more fully informed of the true State of them, and how far they are, or are not essential to the free exercise of the Religion of the Church of Rome, as allowed within Our said Province, remain upon their present Establishment; but you are not to allow the admission of any new Members into any of the said Societies or Communities, the Religious Communities of Women only excepted, without our express orders for that

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purpose. That the Society of Jesuits be suppressed and dissolved, and no longer continued, as a Body corporate and politic, and all their Rights, Possessions and Property shall be vested in Us for such purposes, as We may hereafter think fit to direct and appoint; but We think fit to declare Our Royal Intention to be, that the present Members of the said Society, as established at Quebec shall be allowed sufficient stipends and Provisions during their natural Lives;—That all Missionaries amongst the Indians, whether established under the Authority of, or appointed by the Jesuits, or by any other ecclesiastical Authority of the Romish Church, be withdrawn by degrees, and at such times and in such manner, as shall be satisfactory to the said Indians, and consistent with the Public Safety; and Protestant Missionaries appointed in their places; That all ecclesiastical Persons whatsoever, of the Church of Rome, be inhibited, upon Pain of Deprivation, from influencing any Person in the making a Will, from inveigling Protestants to become Papists, or from tampering with them in matter of Religion, and that the Romish Priests be forbid to inveigh in their Sermons against the Religion of the Church of England, or to marry, baptize, or visit the sick, or bury any of Our Protestant Subjects, if a Protestant Minister be upon the Spot.

    22.  You are at all times and upon all occasions to give every Countenance and Protection in your Power to such Protestant Ministers, and School Masters, as are already established within Our said Province, or may hereafter be sent thither, to take Care, that such Stipends and Allowances, as We may think fit to appoint for them, be duly paid; that the Churches already appropriated, or which may hereafter be appropriated to the use of Divine Worship according to the Rites of the Church of England, as by Law established, be well and orderly kept; and, as the Number of Protestants shall, by God's Blessing, increase, to lay out new Parishes in convenient Situations, and set apart and appropriate proper Districts of Land therein for the Scite of Churches, and Parsonage Houses, and for Glebes for the Ministers and Schoolmasters.

    23.  You are to take especial Care, that God Almighty be devoutly and duly served in all Protestant Churches and Chapels throughout Our said Province, in which Divine Service is performed according to the Rites of the Church of England; the Book of Common Prayer, as by Law established, be read each Sunday and Holiday; and the Blessed Sacrament duly administered.

    24.  You are not to prefer any Protestant Minister to any ecclesiastical Benefice in the Province under your Government, without a Certificate from the Right Reverend Father in God the Lord Bishop of London, of his being conformable to the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, and of a good Life and Conversation; and if any Person hereafter preferred to a Benefice shall appear to you to give Scandal either by his doctrine or manners, you are to use the best means for his Removal.

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    25.  You are to give orders forthwith, that every Protestant Minister within your Government, be one of the Vestry in his respective Parish; and that no Vestry be held without him, except in case of Sickness, or, after Notice of a Vestry summoned, he omit to come.

    26.  And to the end, that the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction of the Lord Bishop of London may take place in Our Province under your Government, as far as conveniently may be; We do think fit, that you give all Countenance and Encouragement to the exercise of the same, excepting only the collating to Benefices, granting Licenses for Marriages, and Probates of Wills, which We have reserved to you Our Governor, and to the Commander in Chief of Our said Province for the time being.

    27.  And We do further direct, that no School-master, who shall arrive in Our said Province from this Kingdom, be henceforward permitted to keep School without the Licence of the said Lord Bishop of London; and that no other Person now there, or that shall come from other Parts, shall be admitted to keep School in your Government without your Licence first obtained.

    28.  You are to take especial Care, that a Table of Marriages, established by the Canons of the Church of England, be hung up in all places of public Worship according to the Rites of the Church of England.

    29.  And it is our further Will and Pleasure, that, in order to suppress, as much as in you lies, every species of Vice and Immorality, You forthwith do cause all Laws already made against Blasphemy, Prophaneness, Adultery, Fornication, Polygamy, Incest, Profanation of the Lord's day, Swearing, and Drunkenness, to be vigorously put in execution in every part of your Government; and that you take due Care for the punishment of these and every other Vice and Immorality by presentment upon Oath, to be made to the Temporal Courts by the Church Wardens of the several Parishes at proper times of the Year to be appointed for that purpose; And for the further discouragement of Vice and encouragement of Virtue and good Living, (that by such Examples the Infidels may be invited and perswaded to embrace the Christian Religion,) You are not to admit any Persons to public Trusts and Employments in the Province under your Government, whose ill fame and conversation may occasion Scandal.

    30.  The Extension of the Limits of the Province of Quebec necessarily calls forth your Attention to a Variety of new Matter and new Objects of Consideration; The protection and control of the various Settlements of Canadian Subjects, and the regulation of the Peltry Trade in the upper or interior Country on the one hand, and the protection of the Fisheries in the Gulph of St Lawrence, and on the Labrador Coast on the other hand, point to Regulations, that require deliberation and despatch.

    31.  The institution of inferior Judicatures with limited Jurisdiction in Criminal and Civil Matters for the Illinois, Poste St Vincenne, the Detroit, Missilimakinac, and Gaspée has been already pointed out, and the Appoint-

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ment of a Superintendent at each of these Posts is all, that is further necessary for their Civil concerns; But it will be highly proper, that the Limits of each of those Posts, and of every other in the interior Country should be fixed and ascertained; and that no Settlement be allowed beyond those Limits; seeing that such Settlements must have the consequence to disgust the Savages; to excite their Enmity; and at length totally to destroy the Peltry Trade, which ought to be cherished and encouraged by every means in your Power.

    32.  It is Our Royal Intention, that the Peltry Trade of the interior Country should be free and open to all Our Subjects, Inhabitants of any of Our Colonies, who shall, pursuant to what was directed by Our Royal Proclamation of 1763, obtain Licences from the Governors of any of Our said Colonies for that purpose, under penalties to observe such Regulations, as shall be made by Our Legislature of Quebec for that purpose; Those Regulations therefore, when established, must be made public throughout all Our American possessions, and they must have for their object the giving every possible facility to that Trade, which the nature of it will admit, and as may consist with fair and just dealing towards the Savages, with whom it is carried on. The fixing stated times and places for carrying on the Trade, and adjusting modes of settling Tariffs of the prices of Goods and Furs, and above all the restraining the Sale of Spirituous Liquors to the Indians will be the most probable and effectual means of answering the ends proposed. These and a variety of other regulations, incident to the nature and purpose of the Peltry Trade in the interior Country, are fully stated in a Plan proposed by Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations in 1764, a copy of which is hereunto annexed,¹ and which will serve as a Guide in a variety of cases, in which it may be necessary to make provision by Law for that important Branch of the American Commerce.

    33.  The Fisheries on the Coast of Labrador, and the Islands adjacent thereto are objects of the greatest Importance, not only on account of the Commodities they produce, but also as Nurseries of Seamen, upon whom the Strength and Security of Our Kingdom depend.

    34.  Justice and Equity demand, that the real and actual property and possession of the Canadian Subjects on that Coast should be preserved intirely; and that they should not be molested or hindered in the exercise of any Sedentary Fisheries they may have established there.

    35.  Their Claims however extend to but a small District of the Coast, on the greatest part of which District a Cod Fishery is stated to be impracticable.

    36.  On all such parts of the Coast, where there are no Canadian Possessions, and more especially where a valuable Cod Fishery may be carried on, it will be your Duty to make the Interests of Our British Subjects going

¹ The plan is given below, following these Instructions; see p. 716.

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out to fish there in Ships fitted out from Great Britain the first object of your care, and, as far as circumstances will admit, to establish on that Coast the Regulations in favour of British fishing Ships, which have been so wisely adopted by the Act of Parliament passed in the Reign of King William the Third "for the encouragement of the Newfoundland Fishery;" and you are on no account to allow any possession to be taken, or sedentary Fisheries to be established upon any parts of the Coast, that are not already private Property, by any persons whatever, except only such as shall produce annually a Certificate of their having fitted out from some Port in Great Britain.

    37.  We have mentioned to you the Fisheries upon the Coast of Labrador, as the main object of your attention; but the Commerce carried on with Savages of that Coast, and the state and condition of those Savages deserve some regard; the Society of Unitas Fratrum, urged by a laudable Zeal for promoting Christianity, has already, under Our Protection, and with Our Permission, formed Establishments in the Northern parts of that Coast for the purposes of civilizing the Natives, and converting them to the Christian Religion. Their success has been answerable to their Zeal; and it is Our express Will and Pleasure, that you do give them every countenance and Encouragement in your power, and that you do not allow any Establishment to be made, but with their consent, within the limits of their possessions.

    38.  By Our Commission to you under Our Great Seal of Great Britain you are authorised and impowered, with the advice and consent of Our Council, to settle and agree with the Inhabitants of Our said Province of Quebec for such Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, as now are, or shall hereafter be in Our Power to dispose of. It is therefore Our Will and Pleasure, that all Lands, which now are, or hereafter may be subject to Our Disposal, be granted in Fief or Seigneurie, in like manner as was practiced antecedent to the Conquest of the said Province; omitting however in any Grant, that shall be passed of such Lands, the Reservation of any Judicial powers, or privileges whatever. And it is Our further Will and Pleasure, that all Grants in Fief or Seigneurie, so to be passed by you, as aforesaid, be made subject to Our Royal Ratification, or Disallowance, and to a due Registry thereof within a limited time, in like manner as was practised in regard to Grants and Concessions held in Fief and Seigneurie under the French Government.

    39.  It is Our Will and Pleasure however, that no Grants be made of any Lands, on which there is any considerable growth of white Pines fit for Masting Our Royal Navy, and which lie convenient for water carriage; But that you do cause all such Lands to be set apart for Our Use, and proper regulations made, and penalties inflicted, to prevent trespasses on such Tracts, and the cutting down, or destroying the Trees growing thereon.

    40.  And whereas it appears from the Representation of Our late Govenor of the District of Trois Rivières that the Iron Works at Saint Maurice in



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