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    65.  And Whereas You will Receive from our Commissioners for Executing the Office of High Admiral of Great Britain, and of Our Plantations, a Commission constituting You Vice Admiral of Our said Province, You are hereby required and Directed Carefully to put in Execution the several powers thereby Granted you—

    66.  Whereas great Inconveniences have happened heretofore by Merchant Ships and other Vessels in the Plantations, wearing the Colours born by Our Ships of War under pretence of Commissions granted to them by the Governors of the said plantations, and by trading under those Colours not only amonst[sic] Our Own Subjects, but also those of other princes and States, and committing divers Irregularities, they may very much dishonor Our Service; For preventing thereof You are to oblige the Commanders of all such Ships, to which You shall grant Commissions, to wear no other Colours than such as are described in an Order of Council of the 7th of January 1730 in relation to Colours to be Worne by all Ships and Vessels, Except Our Ships of War.

    67.  And Whereas there have been some great Irregularities in the manner of Granting Commissions in the plantations to private Ships of War, You are to govern yourself, whenever there shall be Occasion according to the Commission and Instructions granted in this Kingdom but You are not to grant Commissions of Marque or Reprisal against any prince or State or their Subjects in Amity with Us to any person whatsoever without Our Especial Command.

    68.  Whereas We have been Informed that during the time of War Our Enemys have frequently got Intelligence of the State of our plantations by Letters from private persons to their Correspondence in Great Britain, taken on Board Ships coming from the plantations, which has been of Dangerous Consequence; Our Will and Pleasure therefore is, that You signify to all Merchants, Planters and others, that they be very Cautious in time of War whenever that shall happen in giving any account by the Letters of the publick State and Condition of Our province under your Government; And You are further to give directions to all masters of Ships or other persons to whom you may Entrust Your Letters, that they put such Letters into a Bag, with a Sufficient Weight to sink the same Immediately in case of Imminent Danger from the Enemy, and You are also to let the Merchants and Planters know, how greatly it is for their Interest that their Letters should not fall into the Hands of the Enemy; and therefore that they should give like Orders to Masters of Ships in Relation to their Letters; and You are further to advise all Masters of Ships that they do sink all Letters in Case of Danger in the manner before mentioned—

    69.  And Whereas the Merchants and Planters in Our plantations in America have, in time of War, Corresponded and traded with our Enemies, and carried Intelligence to them, to the great Prejudice and Hazard of Our

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said plantations; You are therefore by all possible Methods, to endeavour to hinder such Trade and Correspondence in time of War—

    70.  And You are to Report to Us, by one of Our principal Secretaries of State; What is the Nature of the Soil and Climate of the province under your Government, if it differs in those Circumstances from Our other Northern Colonies, in what that Difference consists, and what beneficial Articles of Commerce the different parts of it are capable of producing?—
    What Rivers there are, and of what extent and convenience to the planters?
    What are the principal Harbours, how situated, of what extent, and what is the Depth of Water and Nature of the Anchorage in each of them?
    What Quantity of Land is now under actual Improvement and Settlement? what are the chief Articles of produce and Culture, the annual amount of the Quantity of each, and upon what Terms and Conditions the Inhabitants hold their Lands, either of Cultivation Rent, or personal Service?—
    What is the Quantity, Nature and property of the Land uncultivated, how much of it is capable of Culture, and what part thereof is private property?—
    What is the number of Inhabitants, Whites and Blacks distinguishing each; what number of the former is capable of bearing Arms, and what number of the latter is annually necessary to be supplied in proportion to the Land Cultivated.
    What was the nature, form and Constitution of the Civil Government; what Judicatures were there Established, and under the Regulations did the french Inhabitants carry on their Commerce; and You are to transmit a Duplicate of such Account to Our Commissioners for Trade and plantations for their Information.

    71.  You are from time to time to send unto Us by One of Our principal Secretaries of State as aforesaid; An account of the Increase and Decrease of the Inhabitants, Whites and Blacks; And also an Account of all persons, Born, Christened and Buried and You are to Transmit duplicates of such Accounts to Our Commissioners for Trade and plantations for their Information.

    72.  Whereas it is absolutely necessary that We be exactly Informed of the State of Defence of all our plantations in America, as well in Relation to the Stores of War that are in each plantation, as to the Forts and Fortifications there, and what more may be necessary to be built for the Defence and Security of the same, You are as soon as possible to prepare an Account thereof with Relation to Our said province in the most particular manner, and You are therein to Express the present State of the Arms, Ammunition, and other Stores of War, belonging to the said Province, either in publick Magazines, or in the Hands of private persons; together with the State of all places, either already forfeited or that you Judge Necessary to be for-

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feited for the Security of Our said province; and You are to transmit the said Accounts to Us by One of Our Principal Secretaries of State, and also Duplicates thereof to Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, for their Information, and also a Duplicate thereof to Our Master General or Principal Officers of Our Ordnance; which Accounts are to Express, the particulars of Ordnance, Carriages, Balls, Powder, and other Sorts of Arms, and Ammunition in Our publick Stores, and so from time to time of what shall be sent to you, or bought with the publick Money, and to Specify the time of the disposal and the Occasion thereof ; and You are half yearly to transmit a General Account of the State of the Fortifications and Warlike Stores, specified in the manner above mentioned—

    73.  You are from time to time to give an Account what Strength your Neighbours have by Sea and Land, and of the Condition of their plantations, and what Correspondence You keep with them—

    74.  And in case of any Distress of any other of Our plantations, You shall, upon application of the respective Governors thereof unto you, assist them with what aid the Condition and Safety of Our province under Your Government can spare.

    75.  If any thing shall happen which may be of advantage or Security to Our province under Your Government, which is not herein, or by Your Commission provided for, We do hereby allow unto You with the Advice and Consent of Our Council, to take Order for the present therein, giving unto Us by One of Our Principal Secretaries of State Speedy Notice thereof, that You may receive Our Ratification, if We shall approve the same; Provided always that You do not, by Colour of any power or Authority hereby given You, Commence or Declare War without Our Knowledge and particular Commands therein; and you are also to Transmit duplicate of such Notice, as aforesaid, to Our Commissioners for Trade and plantations for their Information.—

    76.  And whereas We have by the first Article of these Our Instructions to You directed and Appointed, that Your Chief Residence shall be at Quebec, You are nevertheless frequently to Visit the other parts of Your Government, in Order to Inspect the Management of all publick Affairs and thereby the better to take care, that the Government be so administered, that no disorderly practice may grow up contrary to Our Service and the welfare of Our Subjects—

    77.  And Whereas great Prejudice may happen to Our service, and the security of the Province by Your absence from those parts, You are not upon any pretence whatsoever to come into Europe, without having first obtained leave for so doing from Us under Our Sign Manual and Signet or by Our Order in Our privy Council; Yet nevertheless in Case of Sickness, You may go to South Carolina, or any other of Our Southern plantations, and there Stay for such Space as the Recovery of Your Health may absolutely require—

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    78.  And Whereas We have thought fit by Our Commission to direct, that in Case of Your Death or absence from Our said province, and in Case there be at that time no person within Our said province Commissionated or Appointed by Us to be Our Lieutenant Governor or Coander in Chief that the Eldest Councillor, who shall be at the time of Your Death or absence residing within Our said Province under Your Government, shall take upon him the Administration of Government, and execute our said Commission and Instructions, and the several powers and Authorities therein directed It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure that in such Case the said President shall forbear to pass any Act or Acts but what are immediately necessary for the peace and Welfare of the said Province, without our particular Orders for that purpose, and that he shall not remove or Suspend any of the Members of Our Council, nor any Judges, Justices of the peace, or other Officers Civil or Military, without the advice and consent of at least Seven of the Members of Our said Council, nor even then without good and sufficient Reasons for the same which the said President is by the first Opportunity to transmit Signed by himself and the rest of Our said Council, to Us by One of Our principal Secretaries of State, and he is also to transmit a Duplicate of such Reasons to Our Commissioners for Trade and plantations for their Information.—

    79.  And Whereas We are willing in the best manner to provide for the Support of the Government of Our Province aforesaid, of which You are Governor, by setting apart sufficient allowances to such as shall be Our Governor or Commander in Chief residing for the time being within the same, Our Will and Pleasure is, that when it shall happen, that You shall be Absent from Our said Province, One full Moiety of the Salary and all perquisites and Emoluments whatsoever, which would otherwise become due unto you, shall during the time of Your absence, be paid and satisfied unto Our Commander in Chief, who shall be resident within our said province for the time being, which we do hereby Order and allot to him for his Maintenance and for the better Support of the Dignity of that Our Government.

    80.  And You are upon all Occasions to send unto Us by One of Our principal Secretaries of State a particular Account of all Your proceedings, and of the Condition of Affairs within Your Government, and also a Duplicate thereof to Our Coissioners for Trade and plantations, for their Information, except in cases of a Secret Nature—

    MEMORANDUM—The Instructions relative to the Acts of Trade and Navigation for Govr Carleton are the same with those given to Govr Shirley for the Bahama Islands—

    Plantation Book, 1767-1771 Privy C. O.

    Quebec.  General Instructions, Gov. Carleton, approved by His Majesty in Council the                day of                1768.



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