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No. 187.




Instructions to Our Trusty and Wellbeloved JAMES MURRAY, ESQr,     Our Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over Our     Province of Quebec in America, and all of Our Territories     dependent thereupon. Given at Our Court at St James's the     Seventh Day of December 1763 in the Fourth Year of Our     Reign.

    1.  With these Our Instructions You will receive Our Commission under Our Great Seal of Our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland constituting you Our Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over Our Province of Quebec in America, bounded on the Labrador Coast by the River St John, and form thence by a Line drawn from the Head of that River through the Lake St John to the South End of the Lake Nipissin; from whence the said Line crossing the River St Lawrence and the Lake Champlain in forty five Degrees of North Latitude, passes along the High Lands, which divide the Rivers that empty themselves into the said River St Lawrence, from those which fall into the Sea; and also along the North Coast of the Baye des Chaleurs and the Coast of the Gulph of St Lawrence to Cape Rosieres, and from thence crossing the Mouth of the River St Lawrence by the West End of the Island Anticosti, terminates at the aforesaid River of St John: You are therefore to take upon You the Execution of the Office and Trust We have reposed in You, and the Administration of Government, and to do and execute all Things in due manner that shall belong to your Command, according to the several Powers and Authorities of Our said Commission under Our Great Seal of Great Britain, and these Our Instructions to You, or according to such further Powers and Instructions as shall at any Time hereafter be granted or appointed You under Our Signet and Sign Manual, or by Our Order in Our Privy Council.

    2.  And You are, with all due Solemnity, to cause Our said Commission to be published at Quebec, which We do appoint to be the Place of your Residence and the principal Seat of Government, in the Districts of Montreal

    1 Copy from Public Record Office, Col. O. Plantations, 1763-1766: in Canadian Archives, M, 230, p. 1.

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and Trois Rivieres, and in such other parts of your Government as You shall think necessary and expedient, as soon as possible; which being done, You are in the next place to nominate and establish a Council for Our said Province, to assist You in the Administration of Government, which Council, is, for the present, to be composed of the Persons, whom We have appointed to be Our Lieutenant Governors of Montreal and Trois Rivieres, Our Chief Justice of Our said Province, and the Surveyor General of Our Customs in America for the Northern District, and Eight other Persons to be chosen by You from amongst the most considerable of the Inhabitants of, or Persons of Property in Our said Province; which Persons so nominated and appointed by You as aforesaid (Five of which We do hereby appoint to be a Quorum), are to be Our Council for Our said Province, and to have and enjoy all the Powers, Privilege and Authority usually exercised and enjoyed by the Members of Our Councils in Our other Plantations, and also such others as are contained in Our said Commission under Our Great Seal of Great Britain, and in these Our Instructions to You; and they shall meet together at such Time or Times, Place or Places, as You, in your Discretion, shall think necessary and expedient: It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure, that the said Chief Justice, or Surveyor General of Our Customs, shall not be capable of taking the Administration of the Government upon the Death or Absence of You Our Governor, or the Commander in Chief for the Time being.

    3.  And You are forthwith to call Our said Council together, or such of them as can be conveniently assembled, and to cause Our said Commission to You to be read at such Meeting; which being done, You shall then take yourself, and also administer to Our Lieutenant Governors respectively, and to the Members of Our said Council, the Oaths mentioned in an Act, passed in the first Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the First, intituled, "An Act for the further Security of His Majesty's Person and Government, and the Succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and for extinguishing the Hopes of the pretended Prince of Whales, and his open and secret Abettors;" — as also to make and subscribe, and cause them to make and subscribe the Declaration mentioned in an Act of Parliament made in the Twenty fifth Year of the Reign of King Charles the second, intituled, "An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from popish Recusants." And You and every one of Them are likewise to take an Oath for the due Execution of your and their Places and Trusts, with regard to your and their equal and impartial Administration of Justice; — and You are also to take the Oath required by an Act passed in the seventh and eighth Years of the Reign of King William the Third to be taken by Governors of Plantations, to do their utmost that the Laws relating to the Plantations be observed.

    4.  And You are forthwith to transmit unto Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us for Our Approbation or Disallowance, the Names of the Members of the Council, so to be appointed by You, as aforesaid; as also a List of the Names and Characters of Eight

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other Persons in Our said Province, whom You judge properly qualified to serve in that Station; to the End that, if any of the Persons appointed by You, as aforesaid, shall not be approved and confirmed by Us, under Our Signet and Sign Manual, the Place or Places of such Persons so disapproved may be forthwith supplied form the said List, or otherwise, as We shall think fit.

    5.  And if it shall at any time happen, that, by the Death, Departure our of Our said Province, Suspension of any of Our said Councillors, or otherwise, there shall be a Vacancy in Our said Council, Our Will and Pleasure is, that You signify the same to Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations by the first Opportunity, that We may, under Our Sign Manual, constitute and appoint Others in their Stead; to which End, You are, whenever such Vacancy happens, to transmit to Our said Commissioners, in order to be laid before Us, the Names of three or more Persons, Inhabitants of Our said Province, whom You shall esteem best qualified for such Trust.

    6.  But that Our Affairs may not suffer for want of a due Number of Councillors, if ever it shall happen, that there be less than Seven residing in Our said Province, We do hereby give and grant unto you, the said James Murray, full Power and Authority to chuse as many Persons out of the principal Inhabitants of Our said Province, as will make up the full Number of the Council to be Seven, and no more; which Persons, so chosen and appointed by You, shall be, to all Intents and Purposes, Councillors in Our said Province, till either they shall be confirmed by Us, or, by the Nomination of Others by Us, under Our Signet and Sign Manual, Our said Council shall have Seven or more Persons in it.

    7.  And it is Our Will and Pleasure, that You do, and You are hereby authorized and impowered to suspend and remove any of the Members of Our said Council from sitting, voting, and assisting therein, if You shall find just Cause for so doing; (and also in like manner to suspend any of Our Lieutenant Governors of Our said Province from the Execution of their Commands), and to appoint Others in their Stead, until Our Pleasure shall be known. It is nevertheless Our Will and Pleasure that You do not suspend or remove any of the Lieutenant Governors of Our said Province respectively, or any of the Members of Our Council, when they shall have been confirmed by Us, as aforesaid, without good and sufficient Cause, nor without the Consent of the Majority of the said Council, signified in Council, after due Examination of the Charge against such Lieutenant Governor, or Councillor, and his Answer thereunto; and in case of Suspension of any of them, You are to cause your Reasons for so doing, together with the Charges and Proofs against such Person, forthwith to transmit Copies thereof to Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us; nevertheless if it should happen, that You should have Reasons for suspending any of the said Persons, not fit to be communicated to the Council, You may in that Case suspend such

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person without the Consent of the said Council; but you are thereupon immediately to send to Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, in order to be laid before Us, an Account of your Proceedings therein, together with your Reasons at large for such Suspension, as also your Reasons at large for not communicating the same to the Council; and Duplicates thereof by the next Opportunity.

    8.  Whereas We are sensible, that effectual Care ought to be taken to oblige the Members of the Council to a due Attendance therein, in order to prevent the many Inconveniencies that may happen from the Want of a Quorum of the Council, to transact Business as Occasion may require; It is Our Will and Pleasure, that if any of the Members of Our said Council shall hereafter absent themselves from the said Province, and continue absent above the Space of six Months together, without Leave from You, or from Our Commander in Chief of Our said Province for the time being, first obtained under your or his hand and seal; or shall remain absent for the Space of one Year, without Our Leave given them under Our royal Signet and Sign Manual, their Place or Places in the said Council shall immediately thereupon become Void; and that, if any of the Members of Our said Council, then residing in the Province under your Government, shall hereafter wilfully absent themselves, when duly summoned, without a just and lawful Cause, and shall persist therein after Admonition, You suspend the said Councillors so absenting themselves, till Our further Pleasure be known, giving Us timely Notice thereof: And We do hereby will and require You, that this Our Royal Pleasure be signified to the several Members of Our Council aforesaid, and entered in the Council Books of the Province under your Government, as a standing Rule—

    9.  You are forthwith to communicate such and so many of these Our Instructions to Our said Council, wherein their Advice and Consent are mentioned to be requisite; as likewise all such others, from time to time, as You shall fid convenient for Our Service to be imparted to them.

    10.  You are to permit the Members of Our said Council to have and enjoy Freedom of Debate and Vote, in all Affairs of public Concern that may be debated in Council.

    11.  And whereas it is directed, by Our Commission to You under Our great Seal, that so soon as the Situation and Circumstances of Our said Province will admit thereof, You shall, with the Advice of Our Council, summon and call a General Assembly of the Freeholders in Our said Province; You are therefore, as soon as the more pressing Affairs of Government will allow to give all possible attention to the carrying this important object into Execution: But, as it may be impracticable for the present to form such an Establishment, You are in the mean time to make such Rules and Regulations, by the Advice of Our said Council, as shall appear to be necessary for the Peace, Order and good Government of Our said Province, taking Care that nothing be passed or done, that shall any ways tend to affect the Life,

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Limb or Liberty of the Subject, or to the imposing any Duties or Taxes; and that all such Rules and Regulations be transmitted to Us, by the first Opportunity after they are passed and made, for Our Approbation or Disallowance. And it is Our Will and Pleasure, that when an Assembly shall have been summoned and met, in such manner as You, in your Discretion, shall think most proper, or as shall be hereafter directed and appointed, the following Regulations be carefully observed in the framing and passing all such Laws, Statutes and Ordinances, as are to be passed by You, with the Advice and Consent of Our said Council and Assembly; Vizt
    That the Style of Enacting the said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances be by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, and no other;—
    That each different Matter be provided for by a different Law, without including in one and the same Act such Things as have no proper Relation to each other;—
    That no Clause be inserted in any Act or Ordinance, which shall be foreign to what the Title of it imports; and that no perpetual Clause be part of any temporary Law;—
    That no Law or Ordinance whatever be suspended, altered, continued, revived, or repealed by general Words; but that the Title and Date of such Law or Ordinance be particularly mentioned in the enacting part;—
    That no Law or Ordinance, respecting private Property, be passed without a Clause suspending it's Execution, until Our Royal Will and Pleasure is known; nor without a Saving of the Right of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, and of all Bodies politic and corporate, and of all other Persons, except such as are mentioned in the said Law or Ordinance, and those claiming by, from, and under them; and before such Law or Ordinance is passed, Proof must be made before You, in Council, and entered in the Council Books, that public Notification was made of the Party's Intention to apply for such Act in the several Parish Churches, where the Lands in Question lie, for three Sundays at least successively before any such Law or Ordinance shall be proposed; and You are to transmit, and annex to the said Law, or Ordinance, a Certificate under your hand, that the same passed through all the Forms abovementioned;—
    That in all Laws or Ordinances for levying money, or imposing Fines, Forfeitures or Penalties, express mention be made, that the same is granted or reserved to us, Our Heirs and Successors, for the public Uses of the said Province, and the Support of the Government thereof, as by the said Law, or Ordinance shall be directed; and that a Clause be inserted, declaring, that the Money arising by the Operation of the said Law, or Ordinance shall be accounted for unto Us in this Kingdom, and to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury, or our High Treasurer for the time being, and audited by Our Auditor General of Our Plantations, or his Deputy;—
    That all such Laws, Statutes and Ordinances be transmitted by You within three Months after their passing, or sooner, if Opportunity offers, to Our Commissioners for Trade and Plantations; that they be fairly abstracted in the Margents, and accompanied with very full and particular Observations



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