Georgia, East Florida, and West Florida to the South; and the making those provisional Arrangements in the Proclamation of 1763, by which the interior country was left to the possession of the Indians.
Having thus briefly stated what has been the policy of this kingdom in respect to colonizing in America, it may be necessary to take a cursory view of what has been the effect of it in those colonies, where there has been sufficient time for that effect to discover itself ; because, if it shall appear from the present State of those settlements and the progress they have made, that they are likely to produce the advantages above stated, it will, we humbly apprehend, be a very strong argument against forming settlements in the interior country, more especially where every advantage derived from an established government would naturally tend to draw the stream of population ; fertility of soil and temperature of climate offering superior inticements to settlers, who, exposed to few hardships and struggling with few difficulties, could with little labour earn an abundance for their own wants ; but without a possibility of supplying ours with any considerable quantities ; nor would these inducements be confined in their operation to foreign emigrants determining their choice where to settle ; but would act most powerfully upon the inhabitants of the Northern and Southern latitudes of your Majesty's American dominions, who, ever suffering under the opposite extremes of heat and cold, would be equally tempted by a moderate climate to abandon habitudes peculiarly adapted to the production of those things, which are by nature denied to us, and for the whole of which we should without their assistance stand indebted to, and dependent upon other countries.
It is well known that anticedent to the year 1749 all that part of the Sea Coast of the British Empire in America which extends north east from the Province of Main to Cauçeau in Nova Scotia and from thence north to the mouth of the St. Lawrence River lay waste and neglected, though naturally affording or capable by art of producing every species of naval stores and Seas abounding with Whale, Cod, and other valuable fish, and having many great rivers, Bays and harbours fit for the reception of Ships of War ; thus circumstanced, a consideration of the great commercial advantages which would follow from securing the possession of this country, combined with the evidence of the value set upon it by our enemies, who during the war which terminated at that Period, had at an immense expense attempted to wrest it from us, induced that Plan for the settlement of Nova Scotia, to which we have before referred, and which being prosecuted with vigour though at a very large expense to this kingdom secured the possession of that province, and formed these establishments which contributed so greatly to facilitate and promote the success of your Majesty's arms in the late war.
The establishment of government in this part of America having opened to the view and information of your Majesty's subjects in other colonies, the great commercial advantages to be derived from it induced a zeal for migration and associations were formed for taking up lands and making settlements in this province by principal persons residing in these colonies.
In consequence of these associations upwards of 10,000 souls have passed from those colonies into Nova Scotia who have either engaged in fisheries or become exporters of lumber and provisions to the West Indies ; and further settlements, to the extent of 21 townships of 100,000 acres each, have been engaged to be made there by many of the principal persons in Pensylvania whose names and association for that purpose now lye before your Majesty in Council.
The government of Massachusetts Bay, as well as the proprietors of large tracts to the Eastward of the province of Maine excited by the success of these settlements are giving every encouragement to the like settlements in that valuable country lying between them and Nova Scotia ; and the proprietors of twelve townships lately laid out there by the Massachusetts Government now solicit your Majesty for a confirmation of their title.
Such, may it please your Majesty, is the present state of the progress making in the settlement of the northern parts of the sea coast of North America in consequence of what appears to have been the policy adopted by this kingdom ; and many persons of rank and substance here are proceeding to carry into execution the plan which your Majesty pursuing the same principles of Commercial Policy has approved for the settlement of the islands of St. John and Cape Breton, and of the new established colonies of the south and therefore as we are fully convinced that the encouraging settlements upon the sea coast of North America is founded in the true principles of Commercial Policy, and as we find upon examination that the happy effects of that policy are now beginning to open themselves in the establishment of these branches of commerce, culture, and navigation upon which the strength, wealth and security of this kingdom depend, we cannot be of opinion that it would in any view be advisable to divert your Majesty's subjects in America from the pursuit of these important objects by adopting measures of a new policy at an expense to this kingdom which in its present state it is unable to hear.
This may please your Majesty being the light in which we view the proposition of colonizing in the interior country, considered as a general principal of policy we shall in the next place proceed to examine the several arguments urged in support of the particular establishment now recommended. These arguments appear to us reducible to the following general proposition, viz : –
1. That such colonies will promote population and increase the demands for and consumption of British manufactures.
2. That they will secure the fur trade and prevent all illicit trade or interfering of French or Spaniards with the Indians.
3. That they will be a defence and protection to the old colonies against the Indians ; and
4. That they will contribute to lessen the present heavy expense of supplying provisions to the distant forts and garrisons, and lastly that they are necessary in respect of the inhabitants already residing in those places where they propose to be established, who require some form cf civil government.
After what we have already stated with respect to the policy of encouraging colonies in the interior country as a general principle . . . we trust it will not be necessary to enter into an ample discussion of the arguments brought to support the foregoing propositions. We admit as an undeniable principle of true policy that with a view to prevent manufactures it is necessary and proper to open an extent of territory for colonization, proportioned to the increase of people as a large number of inhabitants cooped up in narrow limits without a sufficiency of land for produce would be compelled to convert their attention and industry to manufactures ; but we submit whether the encouragement given to the settlement of the colonies upon the sea coast and the effect which such encouragement has had, has not already effectually provided for this object as well as for increasing the demand for and consumption of British manufactures ; an advantage which in our humble opinion would not be promoted by these new colonies, which being proposed to be established at the distance of above 1,500 miles from the sea, and in places which upon the fullest evidence are found to be utterly inaccessible to shipping, will from their inability to find returns wherewith to pay for the manufactures of Great Britain be probably led to manufacture for themselves ; a consequence which experience shows has constantly attended in a greater or lesser degree, every inland settlement ; and therefore ought in our humble opinion to be carefully guarded against by encouraging the settlement of that extensive tract of sea coast hitherto unoccupied ; which together with the liberty that the inhabitants of the middle colonies will have (in consequence of the proposed boundary line with the Indians) of gradually extending themselves backwards will more effectually and beneficially answer the object of encouraging population and consumption than the erection of new governments. Such gradual extension, might, through the medium of a continued population, upon even the same extent of territory, preserve a communication of mutual commercial benefits between its extremest parts and Great Britain impossible to exist in colonies separated by immense tracts of unpeopled desert. As to the effect which it is supposed the colonies may have to increase and promote the fur trade and prevent all contraband trade or intercourse between the Indians under your Majesty's protection and the French or Spaniards, it does appear to us, that the extension of the fur trade depends entirely upon the Indians being undisturbed in the possession of their hunting grounds ; that all colonizing does in its nature and must in its consequences operate to the prejudice of that branch of commerce ; and, that the French and Spaniards would be left in possession of a great part of what remained, as New Orleans would still continue the best and surest market.
As to the protection which it is supposed these new colonies may be capable of affording to the old ones, it will in our opinion appear upon the slightest view of their situation, that so far from affording protection to the old colonies, they will stand most in need of it themselves.
It cannot be denied that new colonies would be of advantage in raising provision for the supply of such forts and garrisons as may be kept up in the neighbourhood of them ; but as the degree of utility will be proportioned
to the number and situation of these forts and garrisons which upon the result of the present enquiry it may be thought advisable to continue, so the force of the argument will depend upon that event.
The present French inhabitants in the neighbourhood of the lakes will in our humble opinion be sufficient to furnish with provisions what ever posts may be necessary to continue there, and as there are also French inhabitants settled in some parts of the country lying upon the Mississippi between the rivers Illinois and the Ohio it is to be hoped that a sufficient number of these may be induced to fix their abode where the same convenience and advantage may be derived from them, but if no such circumstance were to exist, and no such assistance to be expected from it, the objections stated to the plan now under our consideration are superior to this or any other advantage it can produce ; and although civil establishments have frequently rendered the expense of an armed force necessary for their protection one of the many objections to those now proposed ; yet we humbly presume there never has been an instance of a government instituted merely with a view to supply a body of troops with suitable provisions ; nor is it necessary in these instances for the settlements already existing as above described ; which being formed under military establishments and ever subjected to military authority do not in our humble opinion require any other superintendence than that of the military officers commanding at these posts. All which is most humbly submitted.
CLARE, THOMAS ROBINSON,
SOAME JENYNS, WM. FITZHERBERT.
March 7th, 1768.
EXTRACT FROM TREATY MADE AT A CONGRESS HELD AT MOBILE IN W. FLORIDA WITH THE CHICKASAMS AND CHACTUMS, MARCH 26TH, 1765.
And to prevent all disputes on account of encroachments or supposed encroachment committed by the English Inhabitants of this or any other of His Majesty's Provinces on the lands or hunting grounds reserved and claimed by the Chickasaw and Chachaw Indians and that no mistakes, doubts or Disputes may for the future arise thereupon, in consideration of the great marks of friendship, benevolence and clemency extended to us, the said Chickasaws and Chactaws Indians by His Majesty King George 3rd :—We the Chiefs and Head Warriers distinguished by great and small medals and Gorgets, and bearing His Majesty's commissions as Chiefs and Leaders of our respective nations, by virtue and in pursuance of the full right and power which we now have and are possessed of, have agreed and we do hereby agree that for the future the Boundary be settled by a line extended from Gross Point in the Island of Mont Louis by the course of the Western Coast of Mobile Bay, to the mouth of the Eastern branch of Tombeckbie River, and North of the course of said River to the confluence of Alibamont and Tombeckbi Rivers and afterwards along the Western bank of Alibamont river to the North of Chickianoce River, and from the confluence of Chickianoce and Alibamont Rivers, a strait line to the confluence of Banke and Tombeckbi Rivers, from thence by a strait line along the Western bank of Banke River till its confluence with the Jallateppe River ; from thence by a strait line to Tombeckbi River ; opposite to Atchatickpe and from Atchatickpe by a strait line to the most Northern part of Backatanne River, and down the course of Backatanne River to its confluence with the River Cascagonea— and down by the course of the River Cascagoula within 12 leagues of the Sea Coast, and thence by a due West line as far as the Chactaw Indian Nation have a right to grant.
And the said Chiefs for themselves and their nations give and confirm the property of all the lands contained between the above described lines and the sea, to H.M. the King of Great Britain and His Successors—preserving to themselves full right and property in all the lands to the Northward of said lines now possessed by them. And none of His Majesty's white subjects shall be permitted to settle on Tombeckbi river to the northward of the rivulet called Centibouck.